ilopl ^aiietu of f irtorm-

VOL. XXII. (New Serfes).


Edited under the Authority oj the Council. ISSUED SEPTEMBER, igog.

{Cotitniniiig Papers read before the Society during the vioiiths of March to July, lyog .






To whoiu all cominunicatioiis for transniissioti to the Royal Society of Victoria, from all parts of Europe, should be sent.




Akt. 1. On a New Species of Leperditia from the Silurian

of Yass, New South Wales. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.E.M.S.. (Plates I.-II.) ... 1

Il^^Contributions to the Flora of Australia, No. 11. By Alfred J. Ewart, D.Sc , Ph.D.. F.L.S. ; Jean White, D.Sc. : and Bertha Rees ; with Appendices by J. R. Tovey and .1. W. Audas. (Plates III. -X.) ... ... ... ... fi

in.— Description of Two Terrestial Species of Talitridae

from Victoria. By O. A. Satce, (Plates XI., XII.) 29

IV.— Description of a New Marine Shell of the Genus Larina (?). By J. H. Gatliff and C. J. Gabriel (Plate XIII.) ... 35

V^ Additions to the Ci..talogue of the Marine Shells of

Victoi'ia. By J. H. Gatliff and C. J. Gabriel. 37

VI. Preliminary Communication on Fifty-three Tas- manian Crania, Forty-two of which are now recorded for the first time. By Richard J. A. Berry, M.D., Edin. et Melb., F.R.S. Edin., F.R.C.S. Edin., and A. W. D. Robertson, M.B. Ch.B., Melb. ... ... ... 4.7

VII. Contributions to our knowledge of Australian Earthworms.— The Blood Vessels - Part I. By Gwynneth Buchanan, B.Sc. (Plates XIV.- XVII.) ... ... ... ... ... 59

VIII. Notes on the Structure of Asymmetron bassanum, Gvinther. By Ethel Remfrey Morris, M.Sc, and Janet Raff, B.Sc. (Plates XVIII. -XX.) So

IX. Contributions to the Flora of Australia, No. 12. By Alfred J. Ewart, D.Sc, Ph.D., P.L.S., and Jean White, D.Sc. (Plates XXI.-XXVI.) ... 91


[Proc. Eoy. Soc. Victoria, 22 (N.S.), Pt. I., 1909.]

Ak']'. I. On a Neiv Species of Leperditia from the Silurian of Fas-s, Neiv South Wales,


National Museum, Melbourne.

(With Plates I., II.)

[Read 15th April, 1909.]

Preliminary Remarks.

The princij^al published descriptions of the Yass Silurian fauna are to be found in C. Jenkins' paper " On the Geology of the Yass Plains/'i and Prof. T. W. E. David's '•' Report on the Fossiliferous Beds, Yass. "2 The former author records '' Pter- inea " and " ModiolojJsis " from the horizon whence our speci- mens were obtained, and it is probable that our Leperditia and Jenkins' Modiolopsis are one and the same. In the vertical sec- tion in Prof. David's Report, ostracoda are recorded from bed L, associated with Pterinea laminosa ( = (?) Rhoinhopteria) and '' Sjjirifer yassensis'' ( = S. aff . plicatellus, L. sp.). Beyond the above references, no other information concerning the Yass Lejjerditiat appears to have been recorded.

In November, 1903, Mr. A. J. Shearsby, F.R.M.S., of Yass, pre- sented to the National Museum, among other fossils, a good series of Leperditiae on blocks of shaly micaceous mudstone from Clifton- wood, Yass, N. S. Wales. This genus of ostracoda has been recorded from Australia,^ but no species have yet been described.

1 Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, vol. iii., 1878, pp. 21-32.

2 Ann. Rep. Dept. Mines, N. S. Wales (for 1882), 18^3, p. 148 ; and especially sections (vertical and horizontal), with accompanying notes.

3 Prof Ralph Tate, in his "Cambrian Fossils of S. Australia," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, vol. xv., 1892, p. 187, records two forms of Lejjerditia in the Cambrian Lime- stone of (?) Curramulka, one of which he says " has much resemblance to L. dermatoides, Walcott." These examples of Tate's have been kindly lent me by my friend Mr. W. Howchin, and in addition two other specimens from Mr. Sweet's collection will presently be described.

Frederick Chaio'^nan

Leperditia shearsbii, sp. nov. (Plate I.).

Be^cription. Carapace elongate, sub-oval. Eight valve larger, and with the ventral overlap well-marked. Seen from the side, dorsal line straight, ventral margin evenly curved ; narrowly rounded in front and incurving at a sharp angle to the antero- dorsal angle ; widely rounded behind and meeting the dorsal border with little or no angularity, differing in this respect from the allied L. marginaia. Keyserling sp.^ Central tubercle situated in the middle of a large, well-defined pro- minence, and somewhat anterior in position. In front of this tumid area the surface of the valve is strongly compressed, and this is extended, as a narrow marginal flange, more or less all round the caraj^ace. Casts of this ostracod show the marginal compression more uniformly. This latter feature was noticed by Keyserling, especially in his (?) adult or large example, and was ascribed to the presence of an inverted ventral plate. Some of the casts in the present series also support the idea of an internal flange. Behind the central tubercle the surface of the valve slopes, at first rather rapidly, and then gradually, to with- in the area of the posterior third. The lucid or muscle spot is best seen on the interior of the valves, appearing as a circidar depression marked by a network of fine polygonal grooves with a general radial arrangement. Anterior tul)ercle (eye-spot) small, round and always conspicuous ; situated closer to the antero-dorsal angle than in L. haJfliica, His. sp., and more exactly in the position shown by L. manjinaia. The structure of the valves is clearly brought out in weathered examples, and the coarse pittings and radial grooving in proximity to tlif central tubercle is then well seen. M cnsinu'inexts (in millimetres).




S[)ec. A.


Spec. B.



1 (I't. valve)

Spec. C.



1 " dipridina inari/inata," Keyscrlinif. Wisscnscliaftliche lieobaehtuiigen auf < lleise in das Petschora-Land (UeoiJfnosHsclK' r.(.oliac'htuni;on), 184(5, p. 288, pi. xi., f. 10.

NeiD Species of Leperditia, 3

Affinities. ^The well-known L. halthica, Hismger sp./ bears some points of resemblance to the above-described form, as in the structure of the carapace around the central tubercle ; but the united valves are much thicker, the postero-dorsal angle is sharper, and the central tubercle is more median than in our species. Our fig. 2 is near L. eichivaldi of Schmidt,'^ in general outline, especially in his fig. 29. In L. eichvaldi, however, and the next to be noticed, there is a decided difference, in the sharp truncation of the postero-dorsal angle, already remarked upon, and whicli in our species is evenly rounded off. L. eichwaldi possesses a marginal flange, but not so well developed as in L. marfjinata, Keys. The figures of L. marginata given with Keyserling's original description shoAv a great variation in size, but the essential characters are the same. Prof. T. Eupert Jones," in reviewing this sjDecies, remarked that he suspected the smaller individual to be an adult form of a distinct species. The present extensive series shows just such a large amount of variation in size, which naturally leads us to conclude that Keyserling's species, like ours, was really subject to great dimen- sional variation. In the relative thickness of the carapace and the position of the central tubercle, the Australian and Petschora-Land specimens agree, leaving the fundamental ;ind characteristic differences of the shape of the hinder end of the carapace as sufficiently striking to warrant a new designation for the Yass examples.

Other s^Decies of the L. marginata type which may be com- pared with L. sliearshii are L. isochilinoides, Jones, '^ from schistose sandstone of Devonian age. Spitzbergen, and L. nordenskjoe.ldi, Schmidt,"' from Upper Silurian rocks in the Island of Waigatsch. The latter species, however, is not so narrow in front (side aspect), nor so roundly truncate at the dorsal anaie of the hinder end.

1 " Cytherina balthica," Hisinyer. Lethfea Suecica, 1837, p. 10 and 118, pi. i., fit;s. 2, a, b ; pi. XXX., fig-. 1.

2 " Ueber die Russischen silurLschen Leperditien." Mem. Acad. Imp. Sei. St. Petersb., ser. 7, vol. xxi., 1874, p. 17, pi.— figs. 19-21.

3 " Notes on the Palaeozoic Bivalved Entomostraca, Xo. iii. Some species of Leperditia." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, vol. xvii., 1856, p. 94.

4 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser. 5, vol. xii., 1883, p. 247, pi. ix., figs. 1-9.

5 Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., ser. 7, vol. xxxi., No. 5, 1883, pi. i., figs. 29-32.


4 Frederick Ghaiwian :

L. marginata, Keys., which may be regarded as the nearest related form to ours, has been recorded from Upper Silurian strata of the Swedish and Russian Baltic area. The form recorded by Prof. Jones from Silurian Limestones, Pine Island Lake, on the English or Great River, Canada, under the above name\ was later re-determined as Isochilina grandis. A British example of L. marginata is known from the Downtonian Sand- stone of Kington, Herefordshire^.

Occurrence. In flaggy micaceous sandstone of Upper Silurian age. Cliftonwood, Yass, N. S.Wales.

Notes on the Lepbrditia Bed and Associated Strata.

The following note on the bed has been kindly supplied by Mr. Shearsby. '' Leperditiae. These are found in large numbers in a thin layer of micaceous mudstones shown in the photograph (PI. TI.) by a thin white line. Myriads of these occur in a layer which is not more than an inch thick. Only a few are to be found just above or below this zone ; perhaps the matrix sandstone was unsuitable for their preservation. In this thin layer, also, are to be found enormous numbers of a bivalve shell, probably referable to RhomhopteriaJ'

Mr. Shearsby has kindly forwarded an interesting collection of fossils associated with the Leperditiae, and has supplemented these with notes of other genera and species as given below. ^

The Leperditia Bed. The bivalve shell referred to by Mr. Shearsby is closely allied to Rhomhopteria, and may prove to be identical with De Koninck's Pterici lat/iinosa, which that author recorded'* from '" argillaceous limestone, Yass District." In the same bed there is a Loxonema (casts), and some crashed shells of a Spirifer allied to S. plicatellus, L. sp.

Below the Leperditia Bed. Spirifer cf. plicatellus (narrow var.) ; Favosites sp., a branching form (Mr. Shearsby has traced one example for over a foot in length, giving off many branches). This latter occurs 12 inches below the Spirifer bed. Near the

1 Ann. Maj,'. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, vol. xvii., 1856, p. 94, pi. vii., %. 14.

2 Loc. supra cit., p. 95, pi. vii., fij^. 15.

3 Details of the separate horizons and their fossil faunas will t)e shortly };iven in a paper hy Mr. Shearsby.

4 Mem. Geol. Surv. N. S. Wales, Palseont., No. 6, 1898, p. 92, pi. iii., ti«-. 12.

Proc. R.S. Victoria, 1909. Plate I.

F.C. del.

Leperditia shearsbii, sp. nov.. Up. Silurian, Yass.

Proc. R.S. Victoria, 1909. Plate II.

A. .J. Shearsby, Photo.

Section of Upper Silurian Beds, Cliftonwood, Yass, N.S.W.

Leperditia zone shown by white line.

New Species of Leperditia. 5

base of this laminated and calcareous mudstone series, (?) crus- tacean tracks were noticed ; also a Lingula and some bivalve remains.

Above the Leperditia Bed. 10 feet of calcareous mudstone with no fossils. Then 3 feet of comparatively fossiliferous lime- stone with Heliolites sp. and Spirifer plicatellus. Above this again, 18 inches of unfossiliferous micaceous sandstone. Then 3 feet of calcareous mudstone, highly fossiliferous, containing of. Cystiphyllum sp., Rliizoj^hylhtm inter punctatwtn, De Kon. ; R. robustuin, Shearsby ; Try plasma sp. ; Favosites sp. ; Helio- lites cf. inter stincta, L. sp. ; Orthothetes shearshii, Dun ; Spirifer aff. plicatellus, L. sp. ; Murchisonia sp. ; and Encrinurus cf. punctatus, Briinn. sp. Laid down upon this are 150 feet of shales and mudstones capped by a few feet of impure limestone containing an enormous number of fossils, some of which are : Cyathophyllum sp. ; Heliolites sp. ; Crinoid remains ; Lingula aff. lewisi. Sow.; Orthothetes shearshii; Atrypa reticularis, L. sp. : cf. Meristina australis, Dun ; Spirifer aff. *S'. fimbriatus, Conrad ; (cf.) Paracyclas sp. ; (cf.) Megamhonia sp. ; Bellerophon sp. ; (?) Endoceras sp. Over this there are about 150 ft. of grits, sandstones and calcareous shale, which is finally cut off by porphyry.


Plate I.

Fig. 1. Leperditia shearshii, sp. nov. A right valve of a small individual, la, dorsal edge view. x 10.

Fig. 2. Z. shearshii, sp. nov. Type. Carapace from the right side of a normal-sized individual. 2a, ventral edge view. X 10.

Fig. 3.— Z. shearshii, sp. nov. Cast of a large individual, show- ing the deep marginal depression. x 10.

Fig. 4. Z. shearshii, sp. nov. Portion of interior of a valve, showing " eye-spot " with vascular markings. x 20,

Plate IL

Photograph of section of the Upper Silurian strata at Clifton wood, Yass. (The white line marks the Leperditia bed).

[Pboc. Kot. Soc. Victoria, 22 (N.S.), Pt. I-, 1909.]

Art. 11. Contributions to the Flora of Australia, No. 11}



(Government Botanist),


(Victorian Government Eesearch Bursars);



Of the National Herbarium.

(With Plates III.-X.) [Read 13th May, 1909.]

Acacia Mackeyana, n. sp., Ewart and White (Leguminosae). In recognition of the services of the Hon. J. E. Mackey towards the establishment of the National Park at Wilson's Promontory.

Cowcowing, W. Australia, M. Koch. No. 101-3.

Branches minutely pubescent. Phvllodia shortly petiolate, about 1 cm. in length, pungent, pointed, terete, with from 16 to 20 longitudinal striae, pale green, rigid, 1-2 mm. in diameter, fairly numerous, alternate, glabrous ; stipules, if present, deciduous. Flowers grouped into small Heads with about 12 to 20 on each head, the peduncles average 5 mm. in length, the heads usually solitary. Five sepals, free except at the extreme base, each sepal has a distinct stalk and himina, both pro- vided with simple transparent hairs, yellow. There are gene- rally 2 larger and 3 smaller sepals to each flower, nearly as long as the petals. Corolla of 5 petals, which are membranous and

1 No. 10 ill I'roc. Koy. Soc. Yictoria. vol. xxi., 1909, p. 540.

Flora of Aiisfirdia. 7

deep yellow in colour, with a fairly prominent midrib, united for al)Out three-quarters of their length. Stamens very nume- rous, free except at the extreme base, anthers two-celled.

Legume usually curved sharply at the base so as to form various shapes, about 1 to 2 cm. long in these specimens, stalked, dark brown and rather rigid, slightly compressed and sparsely provided with liairs, which are more abundant at the tip. Fully ripe fruit noc seen.

The plant bears some resemblance to a s-pecimen of "A. aci- phylla '' (Planta Preissiana, 976) placed under A. campylophylla, but the specimen is sterile and the phyl lodes are considerably longer. It comes from Steetz's Herbarium, and was marked near to A. rolletioides and A. striatida.

Acacia sericocakpa, W. V. F. = Acacia Merrallii, F. v. M.


Beyond a greater tendency to hairiness in the young stem and fruits no valid specific distinction can be seen, as regards flower, leaf, stem, or fruit betw^een Fitzgerald's specimens and those of A. MtrraJlii, F. v. M. Fitzgerald admits that ■" carpologically the two species are very close," but considers that A. Merrallii differs in being " almost or quite glabrous, the margins of the phyllodia much thickened, and the venation hardly discernible." These are, however, all variable features, and specimens con- sidered to be A. Merrallii, when submited to Fitzgerald, were marked A. ■iericocarpa, W. v. F. This is in fact merely a form of A. Merrallii, F. v. M., in which the young fruits are con- spicuously hairy.

Allenia,! Ewart (Euphorbiaeae). After Prof. H. B. Allen.

Flowers monoecious. Male flower solitary, or two together in axils of leaves. Perianth, ^ segments in two whorls, concave, petal-like, red ; outer with broad base and narrow tip, inner with narrower base and broader tip, imbricate in bud. Stamens 4, anther lobes separate and reniform in shape, dehiscing longi-

1 Apart from the different second vowels, AUania Benth. is now Aldinia Endl., and Allania Meissn. is now Alania Endl.

8 Ewart, White and Rees :

tudinally by two valves. Stamens opposite segments of perianth, filaments apparently curved in bud, and attached to central disc. Disc small and quadrilateral, 4-partite.

Female flower solitary and axillary. Perianth persistent, 4 segments in two whorls. Each segment with wide base and narrow, pointed tip ; two outer smaller and somewhat refiexed. Ovary 2 carpels and 2 tongue-like stigmas, thick, fleshy, diverging.

Fruit oblong, 2-celled capsule with persistent perianth. One seed in each cell, oblong, smooth, with caruncle. Embryo green, straight, linear, cotyledons slightly longer and about same width as radicle.

Allenia Blackiana, Ewart and Rees.


Small heath-like shrubs. Leaves on very short petioles, small, entire linear, coriaceous, in alternate twos or threes, hairy to glabrous ; with prominent midrib and slightly thickened margin. Stem woody, with short, stiff hairs.

Mt. Victor, 1881, Tepper ; St. Vincent Gulf, 1882, Tepper.

Mount Compass, Kangaroo Island, Nov., 1908, J. M. Black.

The type form has the leaves glabrous or slightly hairy, linear, alternate, i to J inch long. Capsule oblong, rather elongated, glabrous.

Var. MiCROPHYLLA, n. var.

Small, rigid, much branched shrub. Leaves very small, J inch long, hairy, capsule oblong, rather shorter, and covered with hairs.

E. H. H. Griffith, Snug Cove, Kangaroo Island.

Specimens of the plant were forwarded by J. M. Black, who pointed out that if they were Mueller's Micrantheum demissum the numbers of parts in the flower and fruit differed from that proper to the genus Micrantheum. This was found to apply to all the specimens, and hence it became necessary to raise a new genus Allenia, distinguished from Micrantheum and Pseu- dant/ius, by the perianth four-partite instead of six-])artite, by the four instead or 3, 6 or more stamens, and by the 2-celled

Flora of Australia. 9

ovary forming a 2-celled capsule with one seed in each cell. The leaves are like those of Micrantheum, but are in twos as well as in threes. In the absence of srood material the general resemblance to J/, ericoides naturally led Mueller to place it in that genus. As can be seen from the original description quoted Ijeneath, Mueller's material was too imperfect for him to distinguish the peculiarities of the male and female flowers, and of the fruit.

MiCRANTHEUM DEMISSUM, F. v. M. In Vict. Nat., vol. vii.,

p. 67, 1890.

Dwarf : branchlets beset with short spreading hairlets ; leaves ovate or lanceolar-elliptic, generally soon almost glabrous, at the margin hardly or narrowly recurved ; pistillate flowers axillary, solitary : sepals longer than the pedicels, almost elliptic ; fruit hardly thrice longer than the sepals, nearly ovate, at the base blunt, towards the summit more attenuated : seeds brownish, shining ; strophiola pale, turgid, nearly semi-ovate. about thrice shorter than the seed.

Closely allied to M. ericoides, but still more dwarfed, the leaves mostly broader, the pedicels usually shorter, the sepals somewhat larger, the styles less elongated and the fruit smaller ; perhaps the staminate flowers will also prove different.

M. hexandra, to which the South Australian species was in the first instance referred, chiefly on geographic considerations, is a tall highland-plant, larger in all its parts, thus already quite distinct, it produces stamens up to nine in number.

Argophyllum Nullumense, R. T. Baker. Proc. Linn. 8oc. N. S. Wales, xxii., 1897, p. 23L> ; xxiv., 1899, p. 439 = A. NiTiDUM, Forst. (Saxifrageae).

It is not possible to distinguish this plant from A. nitichnn by any well-defined, constant characters. Distinctions derived from the shape and appearance of the leaves are rarely wholly reliable. The first Australian specimens appear to have been identified by Baron von Mueller, and the plant was recorded under this name in Bailey's Queensland Flora.

10 Ewo/rt, White mid Bees:

Three varieties are recognisable under this species.

(1) Variety fulva, Avith rusty-coloured leaves. This has been raised to specific rank as A. crypto phi ehum by Dr. Marg. Zemann. (Herb. Musei Palat, Vindob.).

(2) Variety cryptophleba is wrongly given in Bailey's Flora of Queensland under A. Lejourdanii. The leaves are larger, whiter, and do not possess the numerous short, sharp teeth mentioned by Bailey. Various localities in Queensland.

(3) Variety null u me use. (A. nullumense, R. T. Baker.) This is intermediate, having more the leaf shape and smaller leaves of variety fulva. but the silvery under-surface of var. crypto- phleba.

Atkiplex lobativalve, Y. v. M. Icon. Austr. Salsol., pi. 6 ; and Vict. Nat., ix., 1893, p. 187.

This species is wrongly given as A. lativalre in the Kew Index, 1st Suppl., 1886-1895.

Calkya Sullivaxi, F. v. M. (Orchidaceae).

Recorded by C. French for Gisborne in the Vict. Nat., vol. 22, 1906, p. 163."^

The plant proves to be a form of Caleana minor, R. Br. Only a single authentic specimen of C. Siillivani is known, and this is from, the Grampians. It may prove to be merely a somewhat aberrant form of C. minor.

Calochilus paludosus, K. Br. (Orchidaceae).

Recorded by Mr. F. M. Reader as new to Victoria in Vict. Nat., 1909, vol. xxv., p. 171.

The specimen proves to be C. Rohertsoni, Benth., a Victorian species. It has the shortly-rostrate anther of that species, and tallies exactly with specimens identified by Mueller and by Bentham, and also with an earlier specimen of Mr. Reader's. Mueller proposed at one time (Fragm., v. 96) to unite the 3 Australian species, but subsequently abandoned this view. Though close, the species seem to be distinguished by valid con- stant characters.

Flora of Australia.


Centrolepis platychlamys, F. M. Reader (Centrolepideae).

C. GLABRA, Hier.

This genus is a difficult one, and the boundary of the species somewhat hard to define, but there seems to be no sound reason for maintaining this species as distinct from C. glabra, as can be seen from the following comparison :

C. GLABRA, Hier. Benth. FL, vii., p. 204.

A small glabrous plant, with the habit of C. miiscoides, but more slender.

Leaves capillary ; scapes very slender, sometimes slightly ex- ceeding the leaves, but more fre- quently shorter.

Floral bracts close together, narrow, erect, the outer one about one line long, besides the point or awn at least half as long ; the inner one narrower, without any point.

Flowers four, of which two usually without any stamen, and no hyaline scales.

Carpels of the ovary about 8, rarelv 10.

C. PLATYCHLAMYS, F. M. Reader. Vict. Nat., 1906, p. 23.

A minute, slender, glabrous moss -like plant, usually under 1 inch.

Leaves subulate filiform ; in the larger plants shorter ; in the smaller as long as, or slightly longer than, the scape.

Floral bracts close together, erect or sj^reading, with the awn scarcely more than one line long ; inner bract shorter, margin broadly membranous, no awn, and obtuse.

Flowers, 3-5, two with a stamen and no scales ; the others devoid of either.

Carpels of the ovary usually 5-9.

The membranous bases to the leaves, and the membranous edges of the bracts, are also shown by type specimens of C. glabra, and slight variations in the shape and size of the bracts and awns hardly justify the distinction of a new species. The features used to distinguish the "" species "' from C. muscoideii, G. pulvinata and C. j^usilla are precisely those which distin- guish C. glabra from the same species. C. glabra is only recorded from a few localities in Victoria, viz. : Mt. Emu Creek, F. Mueller (1853) ; Richardson River, Miss Beal ; Shire of Dimboola, Reader (1898) ; Lowan, Reader (1900) ; Hawkesdale, H. B. Williamson (1904 and 1908). It is also recorded from a few localities in West Australia, South Australia and Tasmania.

12 Etvart, White and Rees :

Davisiea Graiiami, Ewart and White, n. sp. (Leguminosae). (xA.fter the Hon. G. Graham, Minister for Agriculture).

A small shrub with quadrangular or ris^id, slightly-scabrous stems. Leaves sessile, with a horizontal articulation, but the laminas vertical and flat or somewhat curved ; reaching 6 cms. in length and 1 to IJ cms. in breadth at tlie base of the stem, but smaller and narrower towards the top ; pungent, the tips tending to become hooked ; lanceolate and narrowed at the base, some- what coriaceous and distinctly veined.

Bracts small, but larger than in D. daphnoides ; inflorescence axillary in small clusters of usually 3 or more flowers, each on a btalk of 2-4 mm. Calyx 3-4 mm., not turbinate, the teeth nearly half as long as the tube, tapering to blunt points and all of equal length. Petals purplish-brown and yellow, standard almost reniform, yellow with dark streaks, longer than the alae or carina, more than half the length of the calyx. Fruit apparently attaining h cm. or more on a stalk of 1 mm.

.Tibberding and Watheroo Rabbit Fence, West Australia, M. Koch, 1905, No. 1365.

Specimens of the plant in Herb., N.S. Wales, were determined by W. V. Fitzgerald as D. daphnoides, Meissn. It difiers from that species in the leaves, calyx and inflorescence. In spite of the dissimihir facies, its nearest affinities seem to be D. acicularis and D. uliciria. Some varieties of the latter develop fairly large and broad leaves.

Dhosbra Huegelii, Endl. var. flaviflora, n. var., W. V. Fitzgerald = D. Menziesii, R. Br., var. flavescens, Benth. (D. intricata. Planch.).

Cowcowing, W.A., Max Koch, Dec, 1904, No. 1039. New locality for latter is L. Bonney, S. Australia, Mrs. Wehl, 1874.

Eucalyptus corrugata, Luehmann.

In Vict. Nat., vol. xiii., p. 168, 1897.

This species is given by Diels, in Engler's Bot. Jahrb., vol. XXXV., p. 443, 1905, as a Herbarium name and queried as E.

Flora of Australia. 13

goniantlia, Turcz. In the Kew Index, :3rd Suppl. (1908), the name is queried similarly. The plant is fully described in the Victorian Naturalist, and its nearest affinities are to E. in- crassatjr and E. jxirhyjjhyUa. In the 2nd supplement of the Kew Index (1904) the name is given as valid, with the proper reference.

Freycinetia Gaudichaudii, Bennett. (Pandanaceae).

This is ofiven bv Warburs: in Enp^ler's Pflanzenreich as from Java only, and Bailey's record of the plant from Queensland dismissed as probably incorrect. Queensland specimens of this plant exist, however, in the National Herbarium which were examined both by Bentham and by Mueller, and referred to this species. Warburg also omits F. insignis from the Queensland Flora without any reason being given. It is given from Queens- land on Baron von Mueller's authority and is included in the Census and in Bailev's Flora.

GiLRUTHiA, Ewart, n. gen. (Compositae, Inulae-Gnaphalinae).

Simple heads of homogamous tubular florets without any subtending scales on the convex receptacle. Involucre of 5 or 6 rows of appressed scarious bracts, with a green midrib and short yellowish appressed tips, more conspicuous in the inner bracts. Pappus of a basal membranous ring with ascending teeth tapering into a small number of plumose filaments, of the length of the corolla. Corolla 5-toothed, golden-yellow anthers slightly tailed. Styles 2, almost terete, not thickened below the middle, truncate at the top.

Achene glabrous or faintly papillose, angular, not beaked, slightly flattened.

The heads are either single or in close, nearly sessile clusters of 3 or more, but quite distinct, and with a well-developed in- volucre. The pappus resembles that of some species of Caloce- phalus, while the style approaches that of some species of Angianthus or Helipterum. The genus forms an interesting connecting link between the Inulae-Angianthinae and the Inulae-

14 Eivart, Wldte and Rees :

Guaphalinae (Angianthus-Calocephalus-Helichrysum). Its simple homogamous heads, bracts in several rows, with yellowish tips, truncate styles, etc., place it in the Guaphalinae, near to Helichrysum, between it and Helipterum, and indicate that the simple head of the latter is derived from the compound head of Angianthinae by the reduction of the partial heads to one flower and the suppression of the subtending scales. Indeed, a few scales are sometimes present betAveen the central florets of Helichrvsum.

GiLiiUTHiA OsBORNi, Ewart and White, n. sp. (after Professors Osborne and Gilruth).

A herb of 1 to 2 inches, branching at the base, stems woody, and, as well as the leaves, covered with soft white hairs. Leaves lanceolar, about -J cm. long, woolly on both sides, nar- rowed at the base, but no distinct petiole, obtuse or somewhat pointed, flat or slightly re volute. Heads on short pedicels terminal, solitaiy or more usually in close clusters of three or more at the ends of the branches. Innermost bracts twice the length of tlie outermost series, which exceed a millimetre in length, and have only few hairs. The inner bracts with a double tuft of woolly hairs on the bract, below the tip.

Mt. Malcolm (north of Kalgoorlie), West Australia. F. Kodway, 123, Nov., 1906.

This puzzling little plant was placed by Hemsley, at Kew, as near to Calocepliahis Sonderi, probably on account of the pappus, l)ut the simple heads necessitate its inclusion in the Guapholinac. and the other peculiarities raise it to the rank of a new <renus.

GllKViLLEA Uehhvana, Kwart and White, ii. sp. (Protenceae. Gi'oup Cycle )ptei'a). After Professor Berry.

Sluul) u}) to 20 ft. high. Stems woody and slightly glaucous, pubescent when young. Lc.ivcs allei-natc, petiolate, exstij^ulate, 6 to 9 inches long. com})ound, with 4 to 7 alternately arranged segments, the h»west segments (> to 7 inches, the upper shorter,

Flora of Australia. 15

and aJl coriaceous, rigid, linear, with entire margins. Each segment has 3 faint longitudinal grooves on the upper surface, and 2 conspicuous grooves on the under surface, which latter are somewhat sparsely pubescent ; the midril) prominent on the under surface. The inflorescence is a raceme., the axis of Avhich is 1^-3 inches long, generally there are several racemes arranged in a panicle. Axis and peduncles are hairy, the latter being about one-twelfth inch in length. Flowers small, perianth about ^ inch, the tube being slightly hairy outside, and the limb densely hairy outside, pale yellow in colour and glabrous inside. Limb globular, the segments concave, the tube curved under the limb, the segments cohering for a long time after the tube has opened. Anthers sessile in the concave lo])es of the limb, all 4 perfect and 2-celled, almost globular. Style nearly J inch long, curved, the stigma enclosed in the limb of the perianth and laterally situated. Ovary on a long stalk, glabrous. Torus small, straight, gland fairly conspicuous, horse-shoe shaped. Fruit large, almost spherical, compressed, ^ to ^ inch in diameter, hard and fairly thick-walled, glabrous. Seed single, cordate, with a very distinct wing all round.

F. A. Rodway. Malcolm, W. Australia. Dec, 1907, No. 321.

It differs from G. leucadendron in having a hairy inflorescence and perianth, and a laterally placed stigma. Pritzel considered it might agree with G. nematoijhylla, of which he had found compound leaved specimens, but the stigma is oblique instead of a cone, and the leaves, pedicels, inflxorescences and flowers all differ from those of G. stenobotrya, F. v. M., and of G. Purdieana. Diels.

Heliptehum Troedelii, F. v. M. (Compositae).

In the type form of this species the heads are aggregated in dense cymose clusters at the ends of the branches. A variety with the inflorescence more diffuse, and one or two heads at the end of branch is equally common, and may be termed variety patens, n. var.

Mt. Lyndhurst, M. Koch, No. 1644, 1899 ; Fraser Range, W. Austr., R. Helms, 1891.

16 Ewm't, White and Rees:

Hakea dactyloides, Cavanilles. (Proteaceae).

Collected a few yards west of the entrance to Mallacoota Inlet by C. C. Lacaita, 1909, and new for Victoria. This is another instance of a N. S. Wales, species extending down the coast line into Victoria.

KocHiA Atkinsiana, W. F. Fitzgerald. (Chenopodiaceae).

Near Champion Bay, West Australia, 1888. New locality.

This specimen was marked by Baron von Mueller, " lobes of calyx very large. With Kochia villosa." The erect lobes are flatter and broader than the type, but the other differences are trivial.

Kochia Murrayana, n. sp. Ewart and Rees. (Chenopodiaceae). In recognition of the addition by the present Victorian Government of £1000 to the Annual Research Endowment Fund.

Isaac Tyson, 1908, Mt. Narryer, Murchison River, W.A.

Apparently a small shrub, stems and leaves covered with woolly hairs. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear, obtuse, flattened, half to one inch long, densely covered with woolly hairs. Flowers, solitary, axillary. Styles 2, persistent. Fruiting perianth convex and extending over fruit, surrounded by hori- zontal, membranous, finely-veined wings connected in a ring about half an inch in width. Total diameter, including fruit, about \^ inches. Perianth woolly tomentose, the latter character extending partly over surface of wings. Calyx-tube woody. Pericarp thin and membranous.

The species is easily distinguished from K. villosa hj the convex fruiting perianth, as well as by the large expansion of the wings and by the larger leaves.

MiNUHiELLA, Tate. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxiii., 1899, p. 288 = MiNURiA, D. C. Benth. Fl., iii., p. 497. (Conipositae).

Only one species was included under Minuriella, M. annua, Tate, which in the connate pappus of the disc florets shows an ap- proach to Minuria suaedifolia. Minuriella is separated mainly

Flora of Australia. 17

on account of the herbaceous habit of its only species, by its lateral, not terminal, flower heads, and by the longer corolla tube of the ray florets. The second feature is an error, the flower heads are as much terminal as in any species of Minuria. Tate's plant differs widely in external habit from any other species of Minuria, but not more than the species of this pleomorphic genus do among themselves. As Tate gives both generic names, the authority for the species need not be altered.

MoNOTAXis GRANDiFLORA, Endl. (Euphorbiaceae).

Unrecorded localities from recently determined specimens are : Max Koch, Wooroloo, W.A., Sept., 1907, No. 1759 ; sources of the Swan R., W.A., Alice Eaton, 1889, Mrs. Heal, 1893, F. Mueller, Nov., 1877, Serpentine R., F. Mueller, Dec, 1877.

Yar. MINOR, new var., Ewart.

Occurs in short, compact clusters of 4 to 9 cms. height and breadth from one tap root, the leaves shorter and more closely set.

R. Helms, Nr. Warangering, W.A., Nov., 1891; and near Gnarlbine, W.A., Nov., 1891.

Panda Nus Forsteri, Mooro et F. v. M. (Pandaneae). Det. by U. Martelli.

Bald Hill Water-hole, Atherton Station, Queensland, J. Dallachy, 9th May, 1863; previously recorded from Lord Howe's Island.

Pandanus spiralis, R. Br.

Bentham made this species a synonym to P. odoratissimus, L. fil. Prof. U. Martelli proposes to restore it. On one speci- men from Escape Cliff, Baron von Mueller had marked, " P. odoratissimus L. var. j P. spiralis, R. Br. Fruit always large, therefore perhaps R. Brown species to be restored." The species

18 Eivart, White and Recf^ :

come from N. Australia, but one specimen is marked Geograplie Bay. This is in W. Australia, below latitude 33 deg., which is very far South for a tropical plant. Many tropical Queensland plants run down the coast into N. S. Wales, however, and N.S. Wales plants are found far down the east coast of Victoria. The moister conditions along the coast render temperature less inoperative as a limiting factor on distribution, and the prox- imity to the sea lessens the extremes of temperature. It is possible that tropical plants may also travel down the W. coast of Australia and reach sheltered localities, where they survive, as apparently in this case.

Warburg, in Enger's Pflanzenreicli, 1900, p 46, makes both P. odoratissimus and P. spiralis synonymous to P. tectorius, Sol., (Prim. fl. in ins. pacif. inedit, 350. Parkinson's Journal of a Voyage to the S. Seas in H.M.S. Endeavour, 1773), L. odora- tissimum dates from 1781. This is another instance of changing an established name for trivial priority reasons.

Polygonum platycladum, F. v. M. Trans. Phil. 8oc. Vict., 1858, vol. ii., p. 73 = Muehlenbkckia platyclada, Meissn. Bot. Ztg., 1865, vol. xxii., p. 313. (Polygonaceae).

The two species are kept apart in the Kew Index, and tlie locality for the latter given as Salomon Islands, and for the former New Caledonia. The plant is occasionally grown in gardens in Australia on account of its curious habit (flattened branches, deciduous leaves, and lateral clusters of small flowers and fleshy fruits). It is evidently a native ])oth of the Salomon Islands and of New Caledonia. The flesliy periantli, darkening from red to almost black, is quite different to that of Poly- (joiiuin. In the figure in Engler's Pfl;in/.enfamilien (III., 2, ]). 32) the stigmas are exaggerated, and the i)erianth represented as 6 instead of 5 partite. The plant was transferred by Mueller in 1863 to Cnrcoloha platyclada, F. v. M. (Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Tab., 5382), and by Meissner in 1865 to its present jiosition. He apparently overlooked its flrst locality. It also occurs in New Ireland, Papua. (Mueller, Notes on Papuan plants, IV., 1876, p. 60).

Flora of Australia. 19

Prasophyllum Tkppkri, F. v. xM.

This name is accepted as valid in the Kew Index, although in the reference given (Tepper's Plants of Ardrossan, Oct., 1880) the name occurs practically as a nomen nudum without p)roper description, and no subsequent publication appears to have been made. Owing, perhaps, to this fact, many specimens of another later species {P. fusco-viride, Reader, Vict. Xat., 1898, p. 16-3) were placed under this species. Only a single specimen of P. Tepperi exists at the Herbarium, whereas F. fusco-riridf appears to have a much wider range. To avoid future error. Mueller's MS. description is published herewith, without altera- tion or amendment.

" Prasox)hyllum Tejjperi, Diff. a P. brevilabre, folio defi- ciente, floribus minoribus, germine turgidiore, sepalo dorsali latiore ; an var. ?

" Flores viriduli. Sep. dorsale lanceolato-ovatum, brevi- acuminatum ; sep. 2 inferiora (resupinatione-superiora, lanceo- lata, sensim acuminatji, semiconnata. sepalo dorsali paulo longiora, Sep. infer. (Pet.) lineari-lanceolata, sepalis exterioribus breviora, labellum aequantia ; lab. brevissime unguiculatum inarticuL, rhombo-ovatum, acuminatum, undulato-crispulum."

Yorke's Peninsula, Tepper. 410.

Prasophyllum fusco-viride (Header) differs in the following respects from Prasophyllum Tepperi (F. v. M.) in:

1. The long circular sheath which completely surround* the inflorescence in P. Tepperi is absent in P. fusco-viride, in which there is a simple short bract at the base of the inflorescence.

'1. The flower of P. Tepperi is much larger, about twice the size of P. fusco-viride.

3. The lateral sepals in P. Tepperi are united for fully half their length, whilst in fusco-viride they are only united at the extreme base.

4. The dorsal sepal in P. Tepperi is almost ovate, while in P. t'usco-vi ride it is relatively much narrower.

5. The labellum of P. Tepperi is very shortly stipulate, and not articulate, and in P. fusco-viride the stalk of the labellum is very pronounced, and it is distinctly articulate.

■6. The i^redominant colour of the petals of P. Tepperi is green, and of P. fusco-viride is purple.


20 Ewart, White and Rees :

P. fusco-viride has the following range : Wimmera, Reader (under P. ansatum) ; Wimmera, Reader. 1894 (under P. Woolsii) ; Yorke Peninsula, S. Austr., Tepper, 1879 (under P. Tepperi).

Salicornia Lylei, Ewart and White. (Chenopodiaceae).

In the description given in Journal of Proc, R.S. of N.S. Wales, vol. xlii., 1908, p. 195, for " very much branched " read " very sparsely branched."

Stylidium (Candollka) Yilgarnense, Pritzel.

Max Koch, Cowcowing, W.A., 1904, No. 1207.

This appears to be close to *S', elongatum, and maj' possibly prove to be a strongly marked variety, with a more spreading panicle and the lower stalks, especially, longer. Drummond's 4th coll., No. 170, has also a shorter, looser panicle, but was placed by Bentham under *S'. elongatum. For the present, however, Pritzel's species must stand.

Additional Localities for Victorian Plants.

Tillaea pedickllosa, F. v. M. (CrassLilaceae). Geelong, H. B. Williamson, October and November, 1905.

Toxanthus MuELLiati, Beuth. (Compositae). Geelong, H. B. Williamson, October and November, 1905.

Naturalised Aliens.

Berkheya (Stobaea) rigida, Thuub. (Compositae).

Geelong, H. B. Williamson, 1906 ; Coode Island, J. R. Tovey and C. French, jnr., October, 1908.

This determination was verified at both Kew and Berlin as Stobaea rigida, Thunb.

Flora of Australia. 21

Professor Hoffmann agrees with Bentham in placing Stobaea as a sub-genus to Berkheva, but no transference of this species has been made hitherto.

This pest is spreading along the shores of Port Phillip, and may therefore be considered naturalised.

Chenopodium (Roubieva) multifidum, L. (Chenopodiaceae). "Scented Goosefoot."

Geelong, December, 1906, H. B. Williamson ; Kailway Re- serve, North Melbourne, March, 1909, J. R. Tovey and C. French, jnr.

The plant is apparently naturalized around the shores of Port Phillip Bay, and is a native of South America. Introduced sparingly in the coastal districts of North America, Italy and France. It is sometimes classed as a separate genus (Roubieva). on account of the calyx enclosing the fruit, but the same peculiarity is shown by Chenopodiurri ambrosioides, L. " Mexi- can Tea," which has also established itself in many parts of Victoria.

Ranunculus repens, L. (Ranunculaceae). " Creeping Buttercup."

Outtrim, Victoria, 1904, Dow; Emerald, 1907, J. W. Audas, and now widely spread.

RuBUS LACINIATUS, Willd. (Rosaceae). "Jagged-leaved Bramble."

Creswick, April, 1909, Prof. Ewart; Thorpdale, Gippsland, Victoria, 1909, A. W. Vroland ; near Gloucester, New S. Wales, Betche, January, 1882.

Probably sufficiently established to be considered naturalized.

This species being without definite locality,