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The person charging this material js re- sponsible for its return to the library from which it was withdrawn on or before the Latest Date Stamped below.

Theft, mutilation, and underlining of books are reasons for disciplinary action and may result in dismissal from the University.

To renew call Telephone Center, 333-8400



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MAY, 1903, to APRIL, 1904.


EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS: H. A. PILsBRY, Curator of the Department of Mollusca, Academy of Natural Sciences, PHILADELPHIA. C. W. JOHNSON, Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History BOSTON.

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a7, OS. {le t : lp ot) ACES ip





Abida. : : ep Achatinellide, eeauhion of new ahiacion : , ee | | Aquillus Montf. . : Bats 4 . 24 Alea . : : . 115 Alyccus awaensis eas. & Hie, n. one , : “bb Amastra fossilis Baldwin, n. sp. . : ; ; ; -). oo Amastra henshawi Baldwin, n. sp. ; : ; . of Amastra saxicola Baldwin, n. sp. ; ; . 34 Amastra senilis Baldwin, n. sp. . : . : : . 35 Amnicola augustina Pils., n. sp. . : Bh ee : . 118 Amnicola galbana Hald. ; j ! . 389 Ancylastrum : ; : ; i. ba Ancyli adhering to poine beet ; : : . . 120 Ancyli, notes on Eastern American . ; 13, 25 Ancylus diaphanus Hald. (PI. IT, figs. 13-18) : 17, 31 Ancylus excentricus Morelet (Pl. I, figs. 19-21). ; ie Ancylus fuscus Adams (PI. I, figs. 1-9) : ; 15,19 Ancylus fuscus Adams var. eugraptus Pils. (Pl. I, figs. 10-15). : 17,19 Ancylus, Seadiachia atid ; ae Ancylus haldemani_. ee Ancylus kirklandi Walker, n. sp. (PL. I, fics. 1- 12) 29, 31 Ancylus obscurus Hald. (Pl. I, figs. 16-18) . ; . 14, 25, 28 ( iii )



Ancylus peninsule Pilsbry & Johnson (PI. II, figs. 19-21)"28, 31

Ancylus rivularis Say. : 2 Ashmunella thomsoniana Goepaee! at 'Pecass N: M. . . ae Bernier, Julien . . . ~ 86 Blade blanfordianus ee ni a : ; : » 30 Bulimulus ephippium Ancey,n. sp. . : : . 102 Bulimulus goniotropis Ancey,n. sp. . oe. . 102 Cancellaria rapella Johnson, n. sp... fee . 148 Cataloguing a collection of shel : : ; 24 jee Carychium pessimum var. borealis P. & H., n. v. ; ere hE Cerithium albocoopertum Davis, n. sp. (Pl. IV, figs. 32,33) 129. Chione cancellata in the Jersey City market . aay Chloritis tosanus Pils. & Hir.,n. sp. . ; , : ee Chondrus . ; : > A¥6 Clam-orous crow. ; . 120 Clanculus gemmulifer var. pallies Pile ; 2. Vee , Seba S| Colobostylus, distribution of Jamaican spend of + 62 Colobostylus albus Sowb. . : : . 65 Colobostylus banksianus Sowb. . ; «1 8 Colobostylus bronni Ads. . 5 ae ; BB Colobostylus chevalieri Ads. > Nes Colobostylus humphreyanus Pfr. : : : ; . oe Colobostylus interruptus Lam. . : : » ee Colobostylus jayanus Ads. . : ; Oe Colobostylus lamellosa Ads. é : ; i. Op Colobostylus nuttii Pils.,n..sp. . : : é 62, 65 Colobostylus redfieldianus Ads. . ; ¢) 08 Colobostylus tectilabris Ads... : . ._ 65 Colobostylus thysanoraphe Sowb. pa . Oe Colobostylus yallahensis Ads _ : ' Oe Dentalium vallicolens Raymond, n. sp. : : E ._ 123 Ennea iwakawa var. oshimana P. & H., n. v. : ee Kosinica Aldr.,n. subgen. . , ; : 19, 20 Mpiphirasionlees orophila Ancey, n. on , : . 82 Epiphragmophora turtoni ae Da piers : ; 2 ee Kucore as) : . ee Kulota ehiphicnane Pile: & Hr. jaa) Oe ; ae Eulota endo Pils. & Hir., n. sp. : . . 105

Eulota luhuana yakushimana Pils. & at Hh, Ves ; .


EHulota (Agista) friedeliana var. peraperta P. & H.,n.v. . 45

EKulota (Agista) kobensis var. discus P. & H.,n.v. . »« 105 Eulota (Euhadra) connivens var. diversa P. & H.,n.v. . 53 Eulota (Euhadra) euterpe Pils. & Hir.,n.sp. ; . 44 Eulota (Euhadra) quesita var. decorata P. & H.,n. v. ee Eulota (Euhadra) submandarina var. miyakejimana P. & H.,

n. V. , has Eulota (Buhadra) piireadarine: var. eee P, & H. pn.v. 53 Eulota (Eulotella) commoda var. izuensis P. & H.,n.v. . 105 Eulota (Plectotropis) conomphala P. & H., n. sp. : . 45 Eulota (Plectotropis) marginata P. & H., n. sp. 44 EKulota (Plectotropis) shikokuensis var. Baaaks P. & H. si. vs. 105 Faula . : ; : : ; : EEG Fauxulus . : : : : g6 Ferrissia Walker, new (ection ae aes : ; ; aye Ce Fulgur, notes on the genus. : ; Bay >) Fulgur, occurrence of zincin } ; ; . 144 Ganesella moellendorffiana Pils. & Bins (| Oe aS age ore aes Gastrochena mowbrayi Davis (PI. IV, fig. DH Ys ; . 128 Gastrochena striatula Aldr. (fig. 2). ae | uel 2 General Notes. ; ; 12; 36,-58;,. 71, 84, 120, 130, 144 Gibbula affinis var. cognata Pils., n. v. ; it 08 Gibbula incarnata Pils.,n. sp. . ; oe) Gibbula vittata Pils., n. sp.. ; , ; : ; Le 9 Goniobasis, a proposed study of . : ; 22, 32 Gundlachia and Ancylus ., ; . ; + 00 Guppya miamiensis Pils., n. sp. . ; ajith Haldemania . 14 Helicogona ee in Newronudint : yo) Helicostyla, the use of the generic name . : WADs Helix hortensis at Perce, P.Q. . ; t 2 aaa Helix hortensis in New England. alia Isthmia : y : sais Jaminea 115

_ Japanese shells, ecuiption of new 31, 44, 52, 69, 18, 104, 116 Japonia sadoensis Pils. & Hir., n. sp. . 31, 105 Japonia toshimana Pils. & Hir., n. sp. ! : . 104 Kaliella harimensis var. sadoensis P. & H.,n. v.. , 46

Kaliella nesiotica Pils. & Hir.,n. sp. . é : : boa cdte


Kaliella preealta var. izushichitoensis P. & H., n. v. Kaliella sororcula Pils. & Hir., n. sp. .

Kaliella xenica Pils. & Hir., n. sp.

Lzvapex Walker, new section of Ancyli

Lambert, Le Pere

Laux .


Law, Annie M.

Linoaria? divaricata Johann n. ee

Lotorium : : Macrochlamys docens Pile, & ae , Bop! iy 2 Macrochlamys izushichitojimana P. & H.,n.sp.. Marston, George 8... ; a AL coffeus var. ai cenninas Hava: n. V. Melampus coffeus var. bishopii Davis, n. v.. !

Melampus coffeus var. verticalis Davis, n. v. Melampus flavus var. albus Davis, n. v. Melampus flavus var. purpureus Davis, n. v. Metzgeria californica Dall, n. sp. : Mollusca of the Bermuda Islands, notes on the . Mollusca on Pike’s Peak Colorado ; E Molluscan fauna of one log [Des Moines, Iowa] . Mollusks of Cedar Lake, Indiana ; Monilea (Rossiteria) nucleolus Pils., n. sp. . Montana Shells .

Mt. Desert, Maine, Land ovate of

Murex marcoensis Sowerby, note on .

Murex messorius var. rubidum Baker . Nesopupa tamagonari Pils. & Hir., n. sp.

New land mollusca from middle “Ainhionioa

New species of eocene fossils from the lignitic of Alabawa Odontostomus deraini Ancey, n. sp. Odontostomus gemellatus Ancey, n. sp. Odontostomus glabratus Ancey, n. sp. Odontostomus squarrosus Ancey, Nn. sp.

Olney, Mrs. Mary P. .


Periploma sulcata Dali: n. Sp.

Phasianella tristis Pils., n. sp.


Pisidium ashmuni Sterki, n. sp. . : SoM Pisidium complanatum Sterki, n. sp. . ; pies bs Pisidium costatum Sterki, n. sp... ; uae Pisidium cuneiformis Sterki, n. sp. . bate! | Pisidium danielsi Sterki, n. sp. . : : ; : mage. Pisidium mainense Sterki, n. sp.. : : : , 4 | Pisidium ohioense Sterki, n. sp. . 7120 Pisidium rowelli Sterki,n. sp. . Hiei!) Pisidium obtusale Pfr. : ; : . 43 Planorbis magnificus Pils., n. sp. . RUNS 5 Pleistocene mollusks of White Pond Mee Seney . SS Pleurotomaria hirasei Pils., n. sp. : : : 3G Polygyra townsendiana var. ptychophora . : re Polygyra tridentata discoidea Pils.,n. subsp... j . 142 Polyplacophora of the Conchylien Cabinet, notes on . tbs Porphyrobaphe galactostoma Ancey . : eo So Porphyrobaphe sarcostoma Ancey, n.sp. . : igs, 104 Porphyrobaphe victor Pfr. . : : oes 90 Porphyrobaphe yatesi Pfr. . : Sor LO4 Price, Miss S. F. f : el Pristiloma japonica Pils. & Him n. sp. aero Ptychochilus ; : : 271 Y6 Publications received . ; ; 24, 41, 58, 12, 92, 107, 132 Punctum infans Pils. & Hir.,n. sp. . ; ; LOT Pupacea and associate foie: notes on the momedulure of. 114 Pupilla : hs : ; : 5 : f ahha Pyramidula solitaria . : ; SN Pyramidula strigosa Gld. . : . 1-5 Pyramidula strigosa Gld. var. alpina Elrod - We Wary S', Bee Pyramidula strigosa Gld. var. Cooperi W.G.B. . Ls Quadrula, observations on the genus . : SD Rossiter, Richard : 3 36 San Nicholas Island, notes on the Mollusk fauna PEGG San Salvador, Bahamas, a partial list of the marine mol- lusks of . ; é wt Saraphia . . ELD Schismope eiratoides (Cpr. ) at ws Desa, Cal. : Mis Scissurella dalli Bartsch, n. sp. . : 790

Septidz, note on the family : : UE


Shell collecting days at Frenchman’s Bay, Me. . 109 Shells of Douglas Co., Wash. : 84 Sigaretus noyesii Dall., n. sp. ipl Siphonaria alternata var. intermedia Dawibs n. Vv, 5 TOT Siphonaria alternata var. opalescens Dawe View Ae Sitala niijimana Pils. & Hir., n. sp. . 54 Somatogyrus constrictus Walker: n. sp. (PL. NG hes 3). _ 135 Somatogyrus coosaensis Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, figs. 6,7) . 137 Somatogyrus crassus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, figs. 11,12) . 138 Somatogyrus georgianus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, fig. 18) . 139 Somatogyrus hinkleyi Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, figs. 1, 2) . 135 Somatogyrus nanus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, fig. 4). . 136 Somatogyrus obtusus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, fig. 10) . 138 Somatogyrus parvulus Tryon (PI. V, figs. 22, 23) 142 Somatogyrus pennsylvanicus Walker,n. sp. (PL. V , figs. 15 16) 140 Somatogyrus pilsbryanus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, figs. 20,21) 142 Somatogyrus umbilicatus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. v, fig. 5) Be Somatogyrus virginicus Walker, n. sp. (Pl. V, figs. 17, 18,19) 141 South America, new land sa ties from . 82, 89, 102 Sphyradium ; . 216 Streptostyla clavulata aoe n. sp. 56 Streptostyla sumichrasti Ancey, n. sp. 56 | Stylobates Dall, n. gen. 62 Stylobates seneus Dall, n. sp. . 62 Succinea ikiana Pils. & Hir., n. sp. Seas Ply Tellina levigata var. stella, n. v. : 1.128 Tertiary fauna of Florida, cpnbnikimtion: to the 94 Tonicia arnheimi Dall, n. sp. 37 Tornatellina ie uiwodt faaatt Pils. & as) ni; ant . Os Torquilla : 115 Trishoplita mesogonia var. minima P. ve H. 1. Vs . 106 Trivia ritteri Raymond, n. sp. 85 Trochide, a new genus of 61 Umbraculum (Eosinica) elevatum hide an Lg Lue Unio declivis Say, the specific value of (PI. ITI,) 49, 51 Unio geometricus Lea. (Pl. IIT) 49, 51 Unio tetralasmus Say (Pl. III.) . 49, 51 Unio, notes on the structure of the shells of » 98 re 8

Unio icquaticata


Unionide, observations on the byssus of ., . : 2 06 Velletia : : : : : . 214 Vertigo Sadensinna Pils. : : : : : isl Vertigo japonica Pils. & Hir., n. a , ; é ade Vitrea,a new British . : : ; eae Vitrea radiatula var. radiata Pils. & Hir., HeVs d he Vitrina depositing eggs. : : : : ; oa Volvaria avena var. southwicki Davis, n. v. : ; » 128

Wolcott, Mrs. Henrietta H. T. , ° ° . ; “. 88


midrich, T.H. . 4 4 ; : ; eres wee Ancey, C. F. Die y : : ; : ne: 82, 89, 102 Baker, Frank C. : ; : : : , 38, 51,88, 112 Baldwin, D. D. . : : : : : ~ pe Bartsch, Paul . : i . 90 Pius, ASC. CC : : ; : ; pe Blaney, Dwight . : ; . 109 Cockerell, T. D. A... i : i BO LS0 ‘Clapp, Geo. H. . : : : ; ood Colton, H.S. . : : 230 Dall, Wm. H.. . : : 381, 51, 5B, 61, 83, 97, 114, 122 MG ge ot 188 Elrod, Morton J. : : ; : : ; gee ry | Frierson, Lorraine S. , F : : AO. 76, 98,101 Hedley, Charles . : : ent9 Hinkley, A.:A. . : 5 , : 32 Hirase, Y. . j é : : 31, 44, 52, 78, 104, 116 sarve, FP. W. . 4 : ; =~ 62 Johnson, Charles W. . : “24, 12, 73, “94, 96, 120, 132, 143 Lowe, Herbert N. : 66 Pilsbry, Henry A... 31, 36, 44, 48, 52, 58, 65, 69, 1B, Tl, 43, 84, 92, 104, 107, 113, 116, 131, 142 Raymond, W. J.. ; é : F : , 6,85, 122 Rous, Sloman , ; : : : : : . 180 Stearns, R. E. C.. ; ; ; : f : 120 Sterki, V... . : : : : : ; ; . 20, 42, 79 Van Hyning, T. . 2 ; F : . 130 Walker, Bryant . ; 13, 25, 133 Whiteaves, J. F.. : : : » 181 Williamson, Mrs. M. Burton . ; é 39, 92, 182 Winkley, Henry W. . : ; ; : ; Ra


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Von. XVII. MAY, 1908. No. 1.

TO OUR READERS. With the present issue, the publication office of THe Nauti.us is changed from the Wagner Institute, Philadelphia, to the Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. This change is in con- sequence of the appointment of Mr. JoHnson, the Business Man- ager and Junior Editor, to the curatorship of the Boston Society. All subscriptions, advertisements and other business communications should hereafter be addressed to Mr. Jounson, at the Boston Society ; while MSS. for publication should be sent to Dr. PitsBry, at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Books and papers for review may be sent to either or both of the editors.



The various forms of Pyramidula strigosa give a series of exceed- ingly interesting and widely varied structure. The series found in western Montana shows plainly the result of different environment. The different forms of strigosa vary from the large shells along Flat- head Lake, measuring 24.34 mm. in diameter, to the very small speci- mens described below. On July 15, 1900, the ascent of Sinyaleamin mountain was made. At height of 8,500 feet an alpine variety was found among the loose rock. There was very little vegetation. No trees were near. They had been left 500 feet below. An occasional scrubby plant and the lichens of the rocks afford the food. Ten days


later an ascent was made of McDonald’s Peak, fifteen miles further north in the range. At height of 7,500 feet a hunt was made for the shells, and the first were found at 7,800 feet, continuing until nearly 8,500, when the rocks were so large and so steep it was useless. to search for them.

Finding specimens on the high slopes of two peaks in the same range, at about the same altitude in each case, seems to indicate that they are not found lower. At this altitude the summer is short. The months of June, July, August, with possibly a little of Septem- ber, is the period of activity. Snow was not far from the specimens found, In one case, only a few feet from the shells was a large snow bank.

The slope on McDonald on which they were found lies to the west. The shells here would receive the sun early in the forenoon, and the last rays as the sun sank behind the hills would strike the ridge on which they were living. The conditions were much more favorable than on Sinyaleamin peak. The snow melts sooner, the ridge is broader with more pulverized rock and more vegetation. The absence of snow tempers the winds. The altitude is a few hun- dred feet lower, which might make a difference.

Search was made for an hour or more for the shells. A large shell vial was filled, a couple of dozen live ones being placed in a separate vial, Living specimens on both McDonald and Sinyaleamin peaks. were proof that they live there at the present. The summit of Mc- Donald is too rough and broken, without soil or vegetation, for shells. to live. None were found. |

As these shells show decided differences from any yet collected, they are here given as a separate variety, and description follows.. They seem distinct enough to mark a separate species.

Pyramidula strigosa Gld., var. alpina n. var.

Shell small; brownish-gray, tending toward light horn color, im dead shells turning to pearly white; lustre somewhat silky ; shell flat, little elevated ; lines of growth, under hand lens, fine, an occasional’ increment of growth giving the appearance of sculpturing; suture well impressed, the periphery well rounded ; aperture nearly circular, slightly obovate, somewhat higher than wide; markings as in strigosa, the upper band continuing in the spire, gradually disappearing ; um-- bilicus medium, circular, deep, subcylindric.


Large diam., 7-10 mm., average of ten specimens, 8.91 mm.; greatest depth, 3-5 mm., average of ten, 4.34 mm.; aperture, 3.65— 4.38 mm., average of eight, 3.99; whorls, 44.50 mm., average of ten, 4.26 mm. ;

Specimens taken at 8,500 feet, on Sinyaleamin mountain, Mission Range, Montana. Also taken on McDonald Peak, same range. Alt. 7,800 to 8,500. Types at the University of Montana.

The averages from the seven localities where shells have been col- lected show very conclusively the effect of altitude on the size of the - shells. Increase in altitude diminishes the length of the season, the amount of heat received, the amount of food supply, and the chances of life. The result is to stunt or dwarf the animals attaining the heights. This is plainly shown in the sizes of shells at the different altitudes. As greater altitudes are reached, shells reduce in diameter, in depth, in the size of the aperture and in the number of whorls. Young specimens taken from the adults at Flathead Lake had shells with 2.25 to 2.50 whorls. If all the young at different altitudes start with the same number when born, the reduction of shell growth in spirals is easily deduced. The very significant observation is that a few hundred feet in altitude shows a corresponding reduction in size _of the shells, The smallest shells are but three-eighths the diameter of the largest, one-third of the depth, have an aperture two-fifths as large, and have but two-thirds the number of whorls. The relative proportions of the largest, from Flathead Lake, to the smallest, on Sinyaleamin mountain, are seen from the following approximate

ratios : Largest shells. Smallest shells.

Large diam. to depth . : A) Tkton.7 14 to7 Depth to width of aperture . oP) S 2Baton22 20 to 22 Large diam. to aperture. » «20 tot] 21 to 11

Lhis story, in brief, as brought out by study, is as follows: Pyra- midula strigosa, var. cooperi, from some source got into the Flathead Lake region. At this altitude, 3,000 feet, it flourished and grew, but the slow-moving animals migrated. As they ascended the mountain sides, following the streams to the banks of the lakes, and then as- _cended the wooded slopes the difficulties in securing food for exist- ence became more of a problem. ‘The shorter season required more hardy animals. Stunting or accidental variation produced smaller individuals, which would not require so much food on account of the


reduced size. ‘The ascent of the mountain continuing, the reduction in size became more pronounced, resulting in the specimens as found. The shells at high altitude are less than one-half the size in any dimensions, as a consequence being less than one-eighth in volume. Present collecting shows that all but the two extremes have been by some perchance killed, although later search may produce the inter- vening specimens. But in many places in the mountains of western Montana shells of medium size are found at from 5,000 feet to 6,000 - feet or higher.

Pyramidula strigosa Gld., var. Coopert W. G. B.

This species abounds along the banks of Flathead Lake and along the banks of lakes in the Mission mountains. At Sinyaleamin Lake, in this range, altitude about 3,800 feet, they were not uncommon, but could not be called abundant, Associated with it, but occurring in very small numbers, was Polygyra townsendiana Lea, var. ptycho- phora A. D. Br., and Pyramidula solitaria Say. At McDonald Lake, in the same range and fifteen miles further north, the species was abundant, in common again with the Polygyra and P. solitarta Say. Here some two quarts were secured by a day’s search among the dead leaves and under decaying logs. To gather them was to crawl on hands and knees among the dense growth of small trees and underbrush, the interlacing dead branches being a constant hindrance as well as a menace to clothing. Many live ones were secured. A large series was gathered which had evidently been killed and eaten by squirrels. As the pine squirrel, Sctwrus richardsont Buck, was rather abundant; he is charged with the damage, though it is not unlikely the little chipmunk, Zamzas sp., takes a part in the work. This collecting was in July, 1900.

The shells were generally opened at the apex of the spire, a large opening being made. An occasional shell was punctured at some other place, but not many. ‘The enemy seems to have discovered how and where to strike in order to secure the meal with the least effort. Pyramidula strigosa var. Cooperi had the larger number of shells thus injured—fifty-four. “Of Pyramidula solitaria fifty were found cut by animals, and but three of Polygyra townsendiana var. ptychophora. The two former were much more abundant, and coopert more conspicuous than solitarta. P. townsendiana were quite difficult to find, and the small number of injured shells shows how

aah muaiinaals


this affects their mortality through foes. Being of the same color as the decaying leaves and moss, and for the most part under logs and debris, they seem to escape their enemies more readily than the two species of Pyramidula.

Along the banks of the Flathead Lake, near the University of Montana Biological Station, this species was also found in rather large numbers. In July, 1899, numbers of shells were found con- taining young. While they were in colonies, yet the specimens were much scattered, and it required much care and search to find them. The search was usually made after a rain, which was the most suit- able time for finding them, but at the same time the conditions made the work very disagreeable.

Pyramidula strigosa Gld., a small variety.

Shells entirely different from those mentioned in the preceding paragraph are found on most of the lower slopes of western Montana. They fit in between coopert and alpina, but are not found associated with either variety. Nowhere does it seem abundant. The small size is probably due to the shortness of the season at which the ani- mals can live. By July the hills and mountain slopes have become dry and parched, although in this month there are occasional light showers. ‘Their dimensions, in millimeters, are as follows for ten specimens taken at 5,000 feet: Large diameter, 11.95 to 16.73, aver- age 13.83; depth, 5.30 to 7.40, average 6.12; aperture, 4.72 to 6.67, average 9.97 ; number of whorls, 4.8 to 5.4, average 6.106.

Pyramidula strigosa Gld., var.

A series of shells was collected on the Tobacco Root range by Earl Douglass and E. H. Murray, which the writer has examined. An- other series was taken by Prin. P. M. Silloway, of Lewistown, Fergus county. ‘These are the only collections of strigosa made in the State east of the Rocky Mountains, so far as the writer knows. ‘They are immediately recognized as differing from those west of the divide. The sculpturing is coarser and they look thicker and more earthy. They are decidedly greater in depth than those found on the higher slopes west of the divide. They differ in these particulars also from the high altitude form alpina. In general shape they are much like coopert, but very much smaller. The dimensions in mm., average of ten specimens, are as follows: From Tobacco Root mountains, alti- tude 7,000 feet. Large diameter, 15.21 ; depth, 9.30; aperture, 7.06;


whorls, 5.05. From Lewistown, altitude 4,792 feet. Large diam- eter, 16.80; depth, 11.78 ; aperture, 7.66; number of whorls, 5.28.

From the above it will be seen that the specimens at higher alti- tude are diminished in size, as also in the number of whorls in the shell, as is the case of those west of the main range.

The following table of comparisons of ten average specimens will give a better idea of the differences than can be given in any other way:

Altitude, Face Depth. | Aperture. a Flathead Lake... . 3,000 23.12 13.96 10.85 6.01 McDonald Lake. .. . 3,300 22.16 12.98 10.66 5.99 Sinyaleamin Lake. . . 3,800 21.82 12.28 |, gees ato Lewistown. . wc 4,792 16.80 11.78 7.66 5.28 Mit. odio. a, Se 5,000 13.83 6.12 5.57 yee 15) Tobacco Root Mts. . .]| 17,000 15.21 9.30 7.06 5.05 McDonald Peak... . 7,800 10.17 4.79 4.25 4.47 Sinyaleamin Peak ../ 8,500 8,91 4.34 3.99 4.26

In examining the preceding table, it will be remembered that the specimens from Lewistown and the Tobacco Root mountains were taken east of the continental divide, all the others from the west slope. The series ranges from 3,300 to 8,500 feet altitude. There is a gradual diminution in each measurement, the smallest and high- est specimens showing about one-third the dimensions of the lowest and largest, with the whorls diminished almost two, or nearly one- third.

The two collections from the east side of the range show the same reduction, but the series is much smaller. I thought there was an error in the altitude of those from the Tobacco Root range, but as Mr. Douglass insists there is not, it appears that conditions there must differ from those prevailing elsewhere in the State.




Abbreviations: Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, first series: Pr. C. A. S.; second series, Pr. C. A. S. (2).

“ld | an ea


Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences: Bull. C. A. S.

American Naturalist: Am. Nat.

American Journal of Conchology: Am. J. Conch.

An asterisk denotes that the species was discovered by Dr. Cooper. In addition to the species named in this list, more than eighty were discovered by Dr. Cooper and described by Neweomb, Carpenter and

_ Gabb in 1863 and 1864.

1. Report of Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad to the Pacific

Coast, Washington, 1860, XII, Part 2.. Report upon the Mollusca

Collected on the Survey, by William Cooper, with notes by J. G. Cooper, pp. 369-386. Also published in The Natural History of Washington Territory, by J. G. Cooper, M. D., and Dr. G. Suckley, U.S. A., 4to, pp. xiv, 497, New York, 1859.

* Chrysodomus middendorffii n. sp. (William Cooper).

* Nassa gibbsii n. sp.

* Ancylus caurinus n. sp.? (No description.)

* Planorbis planulatus n. sp.

Also Pac. Railroad Rep., I, 219-221, 1855, Natural History Re- port. Incidental references to Mollusca.

2. Notice of Land and Freshwater Shells collected by Dr. J. G. Cooper in the Rocky Mountains, etc., in 1860. By T. Bland and eaeecooner, Ann. Lyc. Nat, Hist. N. Y., VII, 1-9, Pl. 1V, 1861.

* Helix mullani n. sp.

* Helix polygyrella n. sp.

3. On some New Genera and Species of California Mollusca. Pie . 11, 202-207. 1863,

Strategus n. gen. * Pleurophyllidia californica n. sp. *Strategus inermis n. sp, * Doris montereyensis Nn. sp. * Miolis opalescens n. sp. * Doris sanguinea n. sp. * Holis iodinea n. sp. * Doris alabastrina n. sp. *Tritonia palmeri n. sp. * Doris sandiegensis n. sp.

4, Strategus (preoccupied) changed to Navarchus. Pr. C. A.S., III, 8.

5. On New or Rare Mollusca Inhabiting the Coast of California. Peo, 111, 56-60, fig. 14. 1863.

Neaplysia n. subgen. *Triopa catalineé n. sp. * Aplysia californica n. sp. * Dendronotus tris n. sp. * Doris albopunctata n. sp. * Molis barbarensis n. sp.

6. On the New Genus of Terrestrial Mollusca Inhabiting Califor- ma. Pr. C. A. S., III, 62-63, fig. 15. 1868.


* Binneya notabilis n. gen., n. sp.

7. Descriptions of New Species of Marine Shells from the Coast of California, by Wm. M. Gabb. Pr. C. A. S., IT], 1865. Described by Dr. Cooper, page 188.

* Gadinia (Rowellia) radiata n. subgen., n. sp.

8. Description of a New California Helix, with notes on others already described. Pr, C. A. S., III, 259-261. 1866.

* Helix sequotcola n. sp.

2. es a New Species of Pedipes livabiineeg the Coast of Califor- nla. CO ASS. 2945; fie. 29. fea.

sr unisulcata n, sp.

10. The West Coast Helicoid Land Shells. Pr. C. A. S., ILI, 431-9. A synopsis of 55 species.

11. Geographical Catalogue of the Mollusca found west of the Rocky Mountains, between 33° and 49° north latitude. Pamph._ 4to, 40 pages. San Francisco, 1867. 795 species named, with geographical range.

12. Cronise’s Natural Wealth of California. San Francisco, 1868. Chapter on Zoology by J. G. Cooper, M. D. 55 species of Mollusca. mainly edible, pages 499-501.

13. The Fauna of Montana Territory. Papers in six issues of Am. Nat. on Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes ; and the Shells of Montana, vol. II, 486-7. 1868-9. 24 species enumerated, with notes.

14. On a New Californian Terrestrial Mollusc. Am. J. Conch., IV, 209, 210, Pl. 18, fies: :1—3. > 1869.

Ammonitella yatesii n. gen., 0. sp.

15. On the Distribution and Localities of West Coast Helicoid Land Shells, &. Am. J. Conch., IV, 211-240. 1869.

16. Notes on the Fauna of the Upper Missouri. Am. Nat., ITI, 294-9. 1869. Includes list of 7 Mollusca.

17. The Naturalist in California. Am. Nat., I11], 182-9 and 470— 481. Incidental references to the Mollusca, 1869.

18. The West Coast Fresh-Water Univalves, No.1. Pr. C.A.S., IV, 93-101. <A synopsis of 43 pulmonate species. 1870.

* Ancylus caurinus W. Cp. is here described. See No. 1.

*Planorbis occidentalis n. sp.

19. On a New Californian Helicoid Land Shell. Am. J. Conch., WV, 196-7, P17; ieee > 1870;

‘oi Li


Daedalochila harfordiana n. sp.

20. Notes on West Coast Land Shells, No. I]. Am. J. Conch.,. V, 199-219. 1870. Additions to paper No. 15, with classification of the Helices of the West Coast.

21. Notes on Mollusca of Monterey Bay, California. Am, J. Conch., VI, 42-70. 1870. A list of 197 species, with notes.

22. Additions and Corrections to the Catalogue of Monterey Mol- Jusca. Am. J. Conch., V1, 321-2.

23. Note on Gadinia and Rowellia, Am. J. Conch., VI, 319, 320.

24. Note on Waldheimia pulvinata Gld. Am. J. Conch., VI, 320.

25. Monterey in the Dry Season. Am. Nat., 1V, 756-8. Refer- ences to the Mollusca.

26. Catalogue of the Invertebrate Fossils of the Western Slope of the United States. Part I]. San Francisco, 1871. 30 pages. Intended merely as a check-list and for labels, supplementing the Geographical Catalogue of 1867.

27. On Shells of the West Slope of North America. No. 1. Pr. C. A. S., IV, 150-6, notes on 51 species; No. II, IV, 171-5,

notes on 34 species.

28. On New Californian Pulmonata, ete. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1872, 143-154, PI. 3.

*Limax (Amalia) hewstoni n. sp. * Assiminea californica n. sp.

*Limax campestris Binney, var. * Alexia setifer n. sp.

occidentalis n, var. * Arion ? andersoni n. sp.

*Ariolimax californicus n. sp. * Lysinoe diabloensis n. sp.

*Ariolimax niger n. sp.

29. On the Law of Variation in the Banded California Land eee A. S., V., 121-5, Pl. VII, VIII. 1873.

30. Note on Alexia setifer and its Allies. Pr. C. A. S., V., 172. 1873.

31. California During the Pliocene Epoch; in the Miocene Epoch ; The Eocene Epoch in California; Note on Tertiary For- mation of California. Pr. C. A.S., V, 889-392, 401-404, 419-421, 422. 1874. |

32. The Origin of California Land Shells, Pr. C. A. S., VI, 12- PAS GIST. | 3

33. On Shells of the West Slope of North America. No. III. Pr. C. A. S., VI, 14-27. 1875. Notes on about 75 species. See No. 27.


34. The Age of the Tejon Group, California. Am. Jour. Sci., dd ser., vol. 14, 321-2. 1877. . From Pr. C. A. S., Nov., 1874.

35. Notes on Some Land Shells of the Pacific Slope. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., XVIII, 282-288. 1879. Notes on about 30 species.

36. On Fossil and Sub-Fossil Land Shells of the United States, with Notes on Living Species. Bull. C. A. S., I, No. 4, 235-255. 1885.

37. West Coast Pulmonata; Fossil and Living. Bull. C. A.S8., II, No. 7, 855-876 and map;. Bull. C. A. S., II, No. 8, 497-514; ProoC. A. 8..(2);. 1, 11-24) 1887.

38. Catalogue of Californian Fossils. Cal. State Mining Bureau, 7th Ann. Rep. State Mineralogist, 221-308. 879 species of Mol- lusca, with geographical range of those in the list now living. 1888.

39. Fresh-Water Mollusca of San Francisco County. Zoe, I, 196-7. . 1890.

40. The Value of Fossils as Indications of Important Mineral Products. 9th Ann. Rep. State Mineralogist, 284-6. 1890.

41. Notes on the Subalpine Mollusca of the Sierra Nevada, near

lat. 838° (with Plate 1), by W. J. Raymond. Additional Notes and |

Descriptions of New Species by J. G. Cooper, M. D. Pr. C. A. S. (2), 1 11,-61=69-and70291.. 1390:

Primella n. subgen. (of Sphertum).

Spherium raymondi n. sp.

Ancylus caurinus W. Cp., var. subalpinus n. var.

Planorbis subcrenatus Cpr., var. disjectus n. var.

42. On Land and Fresh-Water Shells of Lower California. No. Ao) Prec AS So 2), Ty 99-108. rier

Bulimulus inscendens W. G. B., subsp. bryant n. subsp.

Ithodea californica Pf., subsp.? ramentosa n. subsp.

43. The same, No.2. Pr. C. A. 8. (2), IL, 207-207 akae

Bulimulus inscendens W. G. B., var. beldingi n. var.

Bulimulus sufflatus Gld., var. insularts n. var.

Columna ramentosa J. G. C. replaces Rhodea subsp. ramentosa.

Columna ramentosa J. G. C., var. abbreviata n. var.

Felix areolata Pf., var. exanimata n. var.

44. The same, No. 3. Pr. C. A. S. (2), III, 338-344, Pl. XIII, XIV. 1893. Fuller descriptions and figures of species named in 1 and 2.

Melaniella ? eiseniana n. sp.

——E—E—— ee



Planorbis anitensis n. sp.

Planorbis peninsularis n. sp.

Helicodiscus lineatus Say, sonorensis n. subsp.

ao ene come, No.4. Pr. CG. A. §. (2), 1V, 130-148, Pl. V, VI. 1894.

Bulimulus ( pallidior ?) vegetus Gld., var. vegerspiza n. var.

Melantella tastensis n. sp.

46. The same, No. 5. Pr. C. A. S. (2), V, 163-5. 1895.

Bulimulus decipiens n. sp.

Plhocolumna n. gen.

47. Catalogue of the Land and Fresh-Water Mollusca of Lower California. Zoe, II], 12-25. 1892.

48. Catalogue of Californian Fossils. Bull. No. 4, Cal. State