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"Omnes res creatas sunt divinte sapientiff et potential testes, divitia; felicitatis bumanas: exbarum usn bonitas Creatovis; ex pulchritudine sap i e ntia J) ommi; ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potcntia majestatis clucet. Earmn itaque indafatiio ab boniinibus sibi relietis semper astiii ata ; a vers eruditis et sapientibus semper esculta; male doctis et barbaris semper iuiinica fuit." Linn^ci'JS.

" Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour voir qu'elle est le chef-d'eeuvi-e de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- tent toutes ses operations." Bruckxek, Theorie du Systhne Animal, Leyden, 1767.

The sylvan powers

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed,

But scatter roimd ten thousand forms minute

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush

That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles.

Where peril waits the bold adventm-er's tread,

The burning sands of Boi-neo and Cayenne,

All, all to us unlock their secret stores

And pay their cheerful tribute.

J. Tavi.or. Forvnnh. 1818.

CONTENTS OF VOL. VIIT.

"SEVENTH SERIES.]

NUMBER XLIII.

Page

I. Notes on the Rec^-nt Literature of Japa!:e-=e Land-Snails, hy Dr. Hexky a. Pxlsbry, Special Curator of the Department of Mollusca, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1

II. Descriptions of Three new Siluroid Fishes of the Genus Siino- dotttis discoveved by Air. W. L. S. Loat in the ^^ihite Nile. By

G. A. BOULEXGEK, F.ll.S 10

III. Diaprnoses of Fv^ur new Fishes discovered by Mr. J. E. S. Moore in Lakes Albert and Albert Edward. Bv G. A. Boulengee. F.R.S ; 1-2

IV. On the Occurrence of Stihno macrostigmn iu Saixlinia. Bv

G. A. BOULENGEB, F.R.S '. 14

V. Description of a new Liz.ird from the Gaboon. By G. A. BOCLEXGER, F.R.S " lo

VI. New Genera and Species of Eastern and Australian Moth?.

By Colonel C. Swixhoe, M.A., F.L.S., .to 16

VIT. Some new African Bats (including one from the Azores i and a new Galago. By Oldfield Thomas '21

VIII. The Rutelid Genus Adorodocia and a new Allied Form.

By GiEBEHT J. Arrow o5

IX. New Species of Nociuid<e from Tropical America. By W. ScH.ws, F.Z.t? 38

X. The New Mexico Cocc/rf^ of the Genus ii'?jje/vfH?. By T. D. A.

COCKEREEL '. 51

XL On a Collection of Butterflies made by George Migeod, Esq., in Northern Nigeria between September 1^99 and January li.''UO. By Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D 57

XII. On a few Undescribed Rhynchota. By W. L. Dist.-vnt . . 60

XIII. Descriptions of Brazilian Cociidce. Bv Adolph Hempee,

S. Paulo, Brazil ' 62

NeiD Books : Studies iu Fossil Botanv. Bv Dukikfieid Hexrv Scott, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Honorary Keeper of the J odrell Laboratory, Royal Gai'dens. Kew. First Record,* of British Flowering Plauls. CoiupiU'd by Wiii.tam .-X. Clarke 72-74

IV CONTENTS.

Page On the Dates of Publication of the ' Histoire tiaturelle gen^rale et particuliere des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles ' and the 'Tableaux syst^matiques des Animaux; mollusques,' by tbe Parous Ferussac and (y. P. Deshaves : bv 0. Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S. &c., and B. B. Woodward, F.L.S.'&c 74

NUMBER XLIV.

XTV. New Species of Noduid(B from Tropical America. By W. ScH^TJS, F.Z.S .'.... 77

XV. Descriptions of Brazilian Coccidce. By Adolph Hempel,

S. Paulo, Brazil .100

XVI. Onasmall Collectiim of Butterflies from the Kikiiyu Country and Mombasa made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers. By Arthur

G. Butler, Ph.D Ill

XVII. On a new Bat from Borneo. By R. Shelfoed, M.A., Curator of the Sarawak Museum 113

XVIII. Description of a new Fish of the Family Ciclilidce from

the French Congo. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 114

XIX. Descriptions of Three new Genera and Seven new Species

of Hymenoptera from Eastern K&vd. and Australia. By P. Cameron. 116

XX. New and little-known Motbs from India and Australia, ^y Colonel C. Swinhoe, M.A., F.L.S., &c : . 123

XXI. On a Collection of Mammals from the Kanuku Mountains, British Guiana. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S 139

XXII. List of small Mammals obtained by Mr. A. E. Pease, M.P., during: his recent Expedition to Abyssinia, Ayith Descriptions of Three new Forms of Macroscelides. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S lo4

XXIII. Description of a new Species of Chlon'tis from the IjOo- Choo Islands. By G. K. Gude, F.Z.S 157

Neiv Book : Cours de Botanique : Anatomie: Physiologie ; Classi- fication ; Applications agrieoles, industrielles, medicales ; Mor- phologic exp^rimentale ; Gt5ographie botanique: Paleoutologie : Historique. Par MM. Gaston Bonnier et Lecleec du Sablon 1 58

Proceedings of the Geological Society 159, ICO

On Apus and Branchipvs from Armenia, by H. O. Cavalier ; Volvta tSmithi, new Name to reploce that of V. uiiijilicata (pre- occii]ii(d), by G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S. Dates of Publicatioji of thy Ziiologicnl and Botanical ])ortions of some French Voyages. Part II. Ferret find Galinier's ' Voyage en Ab^'ssinie ' ; Le- febvre's ' Voy{i{2e en Abyssinie ' ; ' Exploration scientifique de I'Algeiie ' ; Casteluau'.s ' Anit^rique du Sud ' ; L*tc. : bv C. Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S., and V,. B. Wood ward, F.L.S. i^-c. .' 160, IHl

rONTF'NTS. V

NUMBER XLV.

XXIV. New Species o{ Syntomidce and Arctiadce. By Sir G. F. Hampson, Bart., B.A 1'"'5

XXV. On the Presence of a .Superbranchial Organ in the Cyprinoid Fish Hypophthalmichthys. By G. A. Boulengkr, F.R.S 180

XXV [. On a new Form of Puma from Patagonia. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S 188

XXVII. On a Collection of Bats from Para. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S '. 189

XXVIII. The Rutelid Genus Adorodocia. Bv Gilbert J. Arrow, F.E.S " 193

XXIX. A Revision of the Butterflies of the Genus Prem, with Notes on the Seasonal Phases of the Species. By Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D 196

XXX. Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory, >St. Andrews.— No. XXI. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.D., F.R'.S., &c. (Plate I.) 216

XXXT. Notes and Descriptions relating to some Plataspince and Graphosominte (Rhynchota). By W. L. Distant 233

XXXII. Descriptions of some supposed new Species oi Diphmma- tiiia, Opisthostoma, and a new Variety of Alycceus from N. Borneo, Banguey Island, and Darjeeling. By Hugh Fulton 242

XXXIII. New Neotropical Mammals, with a Note on the Species

of Reithrodoii. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S 246

XXXIV. New Species of Mnrroscelides and Glauconycteris. By Oldfield ThOxMas, F.R.S 255

XXXV. On a new Genus and Two new Species of African Ceto- niidcB. By Gilbert J. Arrow, F.E.S 257

New Book: Zoological Gleanings from the Royal Indian Marine

Survey Ship ' Investigator.' By A. W. Alcock 259

Marine Biological Association of the West of Scotland 260

NUMBER XLVI.

XXXVI. Notes on the Classification of Teleostean Fishes. I. On

the Trachinidce and their Allies. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. . . 261

XXXVII. New Insular Forms of Nasua and Dasyprocta. By Oldfield Thomas 271

XXXVIII. On a Collection of Small Mammals from the Upper Nile obtained by Mr. R. M. Hawker. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. 273

XXXIX. A List of Lepidoptera collected by Mr. Ewart S. Grogan

in Central kinca. Bv Emily Mary Shabpe 278

VI OONTr.NTS

XL. Further Notes on the Pan'jonince of the Family Tabanidce in the British Museum Collection. By Miss Gertrude Ricardo . . 286

XLI. Descriptions of Fourteen new Species of Terrestrial Mollusea from South Africa. By Jamks Cosmo Mrlvill, M.A., F.L.S., and John Henry Ponsonby, F.Z.S. (; Plate 11.) 815

XLII. On the Breeding-habits of Chromis plilander. By Neadick Abraham 321

XLIII. The Nomenclature of European Helices. By Henry A. PiLSBRY, Sc.D 325

XLIV. Some Questions of Mvriopod Nomenclature. Bv R. I. PococK ". " 329

Neiv Book :—0\ii Country's Shells, and how to know them. A

Guide to the British Mollusca. By W. J. Gordon 832

Dates of Publication of the ZooLigical and Bolanical portions of some French Voyag-es. Part il. Dumont d'Urville's 'Voyage de I'Astrolabe ' ; Laplace's 'Voynge sur laFa\orite'; Jac-que- mont's 'Voyage dans I'Ljde'; Tiebouart's 'Commission scientifique d'lslande ' ; Cailliaud, ' Voyage a ]M6ro8 '; 'Expedition scientifique de Morce ; &c. : by C." Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S. , and B. B. Woodward, F.L.S. &c 333

NUMBER XLVn.

XLV. On some Entomostraca collected in the Arctic Sens in 1898 by William S. Bruce, F.R.8.G.S. By Thomas Scott, F.L.S., and Andrew Scott. (Plates HI.- VI.) 337

XLVI. Notes on the Genera Tanaecia and Nora, with Descriptions of new Species. By Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D. &c 356

XL VII. On new Species of Histerido'. By G. Lewis, F.L.S 3C6

XLVIII. A Preliminary Report on some new Brazilian Hemiptera. By Adolph Hempel 383

XLIX. Mysis relicta, LoY(5n, in Ireland. By W"m. F. de "\'ismes Kane, M.A .' 391

L. Some Experiments in Seasonal Dimorphism. By Guy A. K. Marshall, F.Z.S 398

LI. A Revision of the Genera of the Araneje or Spiders with reference to their Type Species. By F. 0. Pickard Cambridge, B. A. 403

'Lll. On Okcdenia^JLul. By C. Mereschkowsky. (Plate VII.). . 415

LHI. On Sfauronella, a new Genus of Diatoms. B\- C. Meresch- kowsky. (Plate ^'ITI.l 424

CONTENTS. VI 1

LIV. On a Oollectiou of Bats from Paraguay. By Oldkield Thomas 435

LV. Diagnoses of new Fishes discovered by Mr. W. L. S. Loat ia the Nile.' By G. A. Boulengee, F.R.S 444

LVI. Desciiption of a new Silurid Fish of the Genus Anoplopterus, from Cameroon. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 447

LVII. Some new Genera and Species of Lithohiomorphous Chilo- poda. By R. I. Pocock 448

LVIII. The Chilopoda or Centipedes of the Australian Continent. By R. I. Pocock 451

LIX. Rhynchotal Notes. XI. Heteroptera : Fam. Lygceidce. By W. L. Distant 464

LX. List of the Fishes of the Characinid Genus Alesfes, Miill. & Trosch., with a Key to their Identification. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 486

Neio Book : Biologia Centrali-Aniericaua : Land and Freshwater

Mollusca. By Prof. Eduabd von Martens 490

Dates of Publication of the Zoological and Botanical portions of some French Voyages.— Part II. Fabvre, ' Commission scientifique du Nord ' ; Du Petit-Thouars, ' Voyage de la V^nus ' ; Dates of the ' Faune Franfaise ' ; Addenda et Corrigenda to Part I. : by C. Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S., and B. B. Woodward, F.L.S."&c. Corrigenda to my Papers " Note on Diatoms from Chincha Guano" (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vi., 1900) and " A List of Californian Diatoms " {I. c. vol. vii., 1901), by C. Meresch- kowsky 491—494

NUMBER XLVIII.

LXI. Rhynchotal Notes. XI. Heteroptera: Y&m. LygcBida. By W. L. Distant 497

LXII. List of the Fishes of the Characinid Genus Distichodus, Miill. & Trosch., with a Key to their Identiticatiou. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S olO

LXIII. On the Genera of Osteoglossidce. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S . 514

LXIV. Description of a new Frog from British East Africa. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S ". 51,5

LXV. On Two new Snakes from Borneo. By R. Shelford, M.A., Curator of the Sarawak Museum 516

LXVL Natural History Notes from the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship ' Investigator,' Commander T. H. Heming, R.N., com- manding.— Series III,, No, 6. An Account of the Trawling Opera- tions during the Surveying-season of 1900-1901. By A. F. McAbdle, B.A., M.B., I'apt. I.M.S., Surgeon-Naturalist lo ihe Survey .517

via CON'J'EXTS.

Page LXVII. On Mammals obtained by "Sir. Alphoiise Robert on the Rio Jordao, S.W. Mirias Geraes. By Oldfirlb Thomas 526

LXVIII. New Species of Oryzomys, Proechimys, Cavia, and Si/lvi- lagus from South America. By Oi-dpield Thomas 536

LXIX. Some new and old Genera of S.-American Aviculariidcs. By R. I. PococK 640

LXX. Description of Two new Species of Bracon from Bengal, By Col. C. T. Bingham, F.Z S., F.E.S. , 555

LXXI. Description of a new Species of Land-Shell from Colombia. By S. I. da Costa 557

LXX II. On Three Blind Victorian Freshwater Crustacea found in Surface-water. By O. A . Sayce 558

New Book: A Handbook of British Birds. By J. E. Harting,

F.L.S., F.Z.S 56-4

Moore's ' Lepidoptera Indica,' by C. Davies Sherborn 565

Index 567

PLATES IN VOL. VIIL

Plate I. Species of Annelids.

II. New Mollusca from South Africa.

>|

^ > Arctic Entomostraca. "V.f

/vl)

VII. Species of Okedenia. VTTI. Stauronella constricta.

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No. 43. JULY 1901.

I. Notes on the Recent Literature of Japanese Land-Snails. By Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry, Special Curator of the Depart- ment of MoUusca, Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- delphia.

After a period of twenty years, during which but little was published upon the land-mollusks of Japan, their investigation has been resumed by several students with the greatest vigour. This revival has been due primarily to the work of collecting undertaken by Mr. Y. Hirase, of Kyoto, Japan. With assistants trained in the best methods of collecting all parts of the Island Empire are being searched for mollusks. The direction of this work involves not only an intelligent appre- ciation of the zoological problems awaiting solution and of the value of such work in advancing the intellectual development of Japan, but large pecuniary outlay as well. And disin- terested devotion to zoological exploration, though happily no longer rare in England and America, is not yet common enough to be passed without a word of appreciation.

It is my purpose in this article to discuss briefly certain Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 7. Vol. viii. 1

2 Dr. H. A.. Pilsbiy on

questions of distribution and classification, to give a list of the species described since the beginning of the year 1900, and to record the somewhat extensive synonymy created during that period.

The work has already reached a point where conclusions of general interest are appearing. The Palfearctic element in the Japanese moUusk-fauna is inconsiderable, but the Oriental element has obviously reached the islands by two routes a northern, via Sachalin Island, bringing in mainland forms of the Amur valley and northward, and a southern, via the Loochoo chain and Formosa, and probably from Corea also, though until that peninsula is better known we cannot state this with confidence. Thus, to give one instance, the Japanese group of species commonly referred to the Helicid subgenus Acnsta is in reality of dual origin : the species of Hondo and Kiushiu(£'. Sieboldiana, Pfr., E. plicosa, Martens*) are related through Eulota despecta of the Loochoo group to E. assimilis, H. Ad., of Formosa, and to species of Central China. Eulota keta, Gld., of Hokkaido (Yesso) Island, on the other hand, is allied to species of Northern China and the Amur valley, and really belongs to the subgenus Mastig- eidota. A similarly dual origin can be traced in various other genera.

The great number of localities explored by Mr. Hirase's collectors permits us now to plot the ranges of many species before known from one locality or from but few places. As the work goes on this will enable us to formulate the lines of migration and the faunal zones or areas of specific and sub- specific differentiation. It is already clear that the islands composing Japan are strikingly unlike most island groups in this that the several islands, as such, are younger than the species of snails living upon them, whereas in most island groups areas of specific and varietal differentiation coincide with the geographic limits of the several islands. In other words, the existing species of Japanese snails were in great part differentiated and acquired their present distribution before the islands were separated f. Present knowledge indicates that continuous land extended from the middle Loochoo group to Hokkaido. The Loochoos were first isolated by subsidence ; then Hokkaido was cut off. Hondo,

* JI. plicosa seems to be merely a synonym of despecta, Gray, which occurs in the southern provinces of Kiushiu, as well as in the Loochoo slands.

t The evidence, so far as supplied by Helices of the Eahadra and Gunesella groups is concerned, has been elaborated in a still unpublished paper by Mr. Addison Gulick and myself.

Japanese Land- Snails, 3

Shikoku, and Kiushiu remained connected until very recent time, and have been separated within the life of those slio;htly differentiated races which we term " subspecies." From soutliern Kii, through Awaji and Shikoku Islands, across Bungo Channel to Kiushiu, and westward across the lower end of the Inland Sea to the west end of Hondo, must have been a continuous land-area since Pliocene and down to geologically recent time. Not only numerous species, but mere races of more widely spread species, occupy this area, and such a distribution is quite inexplicable except upon the theory that the areas in question, though now separated, were until recently a unit geograpliically, as they still are faunally. There are doubtless species existing on Shikoku Island which do not extend beyond its limits; but the local differentiation is not greater than upon an equal area of Hondo and does not make against the view just set fortli.

In respect to classification and generic nomenclature, the Japanese Zonitidse are in great confusion. Reinhardt, many years ago, referred the species known to him to European groups of the family. Early last year I recognized the fact that the Japanese Zonitidte belong mainly to Oriental, not European genera. This opinion found expression in articles published in August (vi. p. 382) and November (xv. p. 81), in which I referred various species to the Oriental genera Macrochlamys and Kaliella, showed that the name Euconulus, Keinh., must replace the names Conulus and Arnouldia, and expressed my belief that the Japanese species referred to these groups really belong to Kaliella. Dr. v. M Ollendorff, in an article just published (xxi. pp. 35, 37), has reached conclusions in part anticipated by my papers, in part at variance with them. He has referred numerous species to the genus Alicrocystina of Morch, most of them, I think, incorrectly. The establishment of Microcystina upon an adequate basis we owe to Godwin- Austen, who showed that it is characterized by a callous thickening or flexure of the columella. Of the Japanese species known to me by speci- mens^ only Arnouldia ceratodes^ Gude, has this feature. I consider v. Mollendorff's reference of this species to Micro- cystina justified. The species Dcenitzi, sinapidium, and Hirasei of his Microcystina list have the shell-characters of Macrochlamys, and not of Microcystina. Most of the other species he mentions are known to me, as they are to him, by the descriptions only, and their generic reference is little better than guesswork.

Gastrodontella^ Mollendorff, a new genus proposed for G. japonica, MUdff. (1901), a synonvm of Kaliella multi-

1*

4 Dr. H. A. Pilsbry on

volvis, Pils. (1900), is thought by Dr. v. Mollendorff to have affinities with Oastrodonta or Sesara. The internal teeth in K. jo2Jom'ca are short transverse barriers at intervals of one third of a whorl, precisely similar to those found in Euconulus fuhus (Drap.), var. dentatus (Sterki), with which K. multi- volvis has many features in common. A similar barrier exists in Kaliella ruga^ Godwin-Austen, and some other Indian species. In K. multivolvis the barriers are very inconstant, completely lacking in some examples, varying in others from one to three in number. The same inconstancy attends the development of internal teeth, barriers, or laminae in Oastro- donta, Sagdtty &c., in which the same species may have them strongly developed or totally absent, as is well recognized by all American students who have investigated the matter. In my opinion, therefore, Gastrodontella has no valid claim to generic rank. It belongs to Kaliella.

It is not my purpose to discuss the classification of Japanese Helicidse at any length in this place ; but a single group calls for remark. In my ' Guide to the Study of Helices ' I pro- posed, under the name Mandarina, a new section of the genus Eulota for the reception of Helix mandarina, Gray, of the Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-sima). It is now my opinion that this group has nothing to do with Eulota, but probably belongs to the Camffininse. The nepionic shell is relatively large and acutely carinate (as in Camcena), is sculptured with fine radial wrinkles at first, with spiral striaj on the outer whorl, and usually continuing upon the postnepionic whorls. The adult shell is extremely heavy for a land-snail, and has a blunt expanded lip. The group is probably of generic rank, and will for the present include three species Helix mandarina, Gray, H. Pallasiana, Pfr. (hitherto referred to Oxytes), and Nanina Ruschenbe^-geri, Pilsbry. The latter two are depressed and openly umbilicate, and will form a separate section of the genus Boninia. All of them are probably confined to the Bonin Islands, although they have been attributed to various localities. The Bonin Islands have incontestably a fauna of " continental " type.

The new species described from Japan, the Loochoo and Bonin Islands, in the twenty-two papers published since Jan. 1, 1900, are as follows. I have appended to each, where necessary, notes on the synonymy &c. The list is arranged chronologically, and the papers are referred to by their numbers in the bibliography following.

Diplommatlna ienui/jlica, Pilsbr)' (i. p. 525). Ennea iivaJcawa, Pilsbry (i. p, 525, pi. xxi. fig. 10).

Japanese Lund- Snails. 5

Eulota (Acusta) Gainesi, Pilsbrj' (i, p. 526). Belongs to the section

Mastigeulata.

luna, Pilsbry (i. p. 526, pi. xxi figs. 1-3).

{yEgista) aperta, Pilsbry (i. p. 527, pi. xxi. figs. 7-9).

(Coelorus) cavicollis, Pilsbry (i. p. 527, pi. xxi. figs. 11-13).

rudis, Pilsbry (i. p. 528, pi. xxi. figs. 20-22). A synonym of

Trislioplita Hilgendorji, Kob. Ganesella satsuma, Pilsbry (i. p, 528, pi. xxi. figs. 2J-22). A sub- species of G. jajyomca, Pfr.

ferruginea, Pilsbry (i. p. 529, pi. xxi. figs. 14—16).

heteroglgpta, Pil8br5r(i. p. 529, pi. xxi. figs. 17-19). Probably

a subspecies of G. japonica, Pfr. Eidota (Plectotropis) Hirasei, Gude (ir. p. 10, pi. ii. figs. 4-7). A

synonym of E. cavicollis, Pils. (^gista) awajiensis, Gude (ir. p. 11, pi. ii. figs. 8-10). A

synonym of E. aperta, Pils.

horrida, Pilsbry (iii. p. 11).

{TAslioplita"!) mesogonia, Pilsbry (iii. p. 11). Doubtless a

l^risliojylita. Ganesella Jacohii, Pilsbry (iir. p. 12). Cyclotiis (2) micron, Pilsbrj^ (iii. p. 12). Pomatiopsis Hirasei, Pilsbry (iii. p. 12). This is Blanfordia Ben-

soni, A. Ad. The genus belongs to the Pomatiopsinge. Bidiminus Hirasei, Pilsbry (iv. p. 32). extorris, var. omiensis, Pilsbry (iv. p. 32). An elongate variety

of B. reinianus, Kob.

callistodermn, Pilsbrj' (iv. p. 33).

Plectotropis polyplecta, Ehrmann (v. p. 379). A synonym for

Eidota Tiorrida, Pils.

delectabilis, Ehrmann (v. p. 380).

pachysoma, Ehrmann (v. p. 380). Seems to be identical with

Eidota scepasma, Pfr. Trislioplita pallens, Ehrmann (v. p. 381). Ganesella pagodida, Ehrmann (v. p. 381). Clausilia (Phoidusa) crassilamellata, Ehrmann (t. p. 382).

( ) ijimce, Ehrmann (v. p. 382).

( ) cincticollis, Ehrmann (v. p. 383).

Alycceus harimensis, Pilsbry (ti. p. 381).

Reinhardti, Pilsbry (vi. p. 381).

{Metahjcceus) melanopoma, Pilsbry (vi. p. 382).

( ) Hirasei, Pilsbry (vi. p. 382).

Diplommatina pusilla, var. omiensis, Pilsbry (vi. p. 382). Macrochlamys micrograpta, Pilsbry (vi. p. 382). The locality,

Kashima, prov. Harima, was inadvertently omitted. KalieUa midtivolvis, Pilsbry (vr. p. 383). Vitrea harimensis, Pilsbry (vi. p. 381). Seems to be the young of

Macrochlamys Doenitzi, Reinh. Georissa japonica, Pilsbry (vi. p. 384). Chloritis (Trichochloritis) fragilis, Gude (vii. p. 70, pi. viii. figs. 18-

6 Dr. H. A. Pilsbiy on

20). This species is related to C. oscitans, v. Mart., -which

has hitherto been referred to Acusta. Eulota {Plectotropis) ceimda, Gude (vii. p. 71, pi. viii. figs. 9-11).

This is H. conella, A. Ad., 1868, as defined bj^ von Martens,

Conch. Mittheil, pi. xviii. figs. 8-12. Not //. conella, Pfr.,

1861. {Euhadra) sericea, Gude (vii. p. 74, pi. viii. figs. 12-14).

This is the true E. BlaJcecma, Newc, of which I have ex- amined the types. Macrochlamys fidgens, Gude (vii. p. 75, pi. viii. figs. 24-26). Arnouldia naliaensis, Gude (vii. p. 75, pi. viii. figs. 21-23). Be- longs to the genus Kcdiella. OrystaUus sulcatus, Gude (xir. p. 399).

velatus, Gude (xii. p. 399).

Microcystis Hirasei, Gude (xii. p. 400). A synonym of Macro-

chlamys mierogrcipta, Pils. Trlsliojplita cretacea, Gude (xii. p. 400). Plectotropis conica, Gude (xii. p. 400). Blaiifordia japonica, " A. Ad.," MoUendorfi" (xiii. p. 153). This is

B. Bensoni, var. minor, Pils., not the true B. japonica, A. Ad.,

which was described in this Journal. Kaliella data, Gude (xiv. p. 453). This seems to be a variety of

Sitala circumcincta, Eeinh.

crenidata, Gude (xrv. p. 453).

pagodidoides, Glide (xiv. p. 453).

Pyramidida pretiosa, Gude (xiv. p. 454). Trishoplita dacostce, Gude (xiv. p. 454).

tosana, Gude (xiv. p. 455).

Eidota (Etdiadra) grata, Gude (xiv. p. 455). With var. zonata,

Gude, t. c. p. 456.

{Plectotropis) Musiiiensis, Pilsbry (xv. p. 79).

Trishoplita Goodivini, var. suprazonata, Pilsbry (xv. p. 80). A

synonym of T. tosana, Gude, published thi'ee days earlier, Ganesella turrita, Gude (vii. p. 75, pi. viii. figs. 1, 2). Probably, as

Mr. Gude suggests, a species of Bidiminopsis. Eulota (Plectotropiis) lep)idopliora, Gude (vii. p. 76, pi. viii. figs. 3-5).

( ) , var. tenuis, Gude {I. c).

Satsuma hrunnea, MoUendorfi' (viii. p. 107). -Probably identical

with Oanesella ferruginea, Pils. Eidiadra hdiuana, subsp. tsiisJiimana, Mollendorff (viii. p. 108). Bidiminus rugidosus, Mollendorff' (viii. p. 108). Chmsilia {Eiiphcadusa) oncaucJieoi, Mcillendoiff' (viii. p. 109). Fupinella Fi-idistorfcri, Mollendorff (viii. p. 110), with var. tsjisJii-

mana. Scarcely distinct from P. rufa. Clausilia JiaJconensis, Pilsbry (ix. p. 443, pi. xiv. figs. 1-3).

aivajiensis, Pilsbry (ix. p. 444, pi. xiv. figs. 15-17).

suhaurantiaca, Pilsbry (ix. p. 444, pi. xiv. figs. 5-7).

aulaco/jhora, Pilsbry (ix. p. 445, pi. xiv. figs. 18-20).

Hirasei, Pilsbry (ix. p. 446, pi. xiv. figs. 8-11),

Japanese Land-Snails. 7

Glausilia hyperoptyx, Pilsbry (ix. p. 446, pi. xiv. figs. 12-14). japonica, var. surugce, Pilsbry (ix. p. 447, pi. xiv. fig. 4).

Seems to me to=C7. oo6-^o»(a, MUdff. Cf. 01. eurystoma, var.

hrachyptycha, below. Eulota Gudeana, Pilsbry (x. p. 60). Probably a subspecies of

E. Gainesi, Pils. liakodatensis, Pilsbry (x. p. 60). New name for HAix

Iceta, Gld., lion Pfr.

callizona Divoni, Pilsbry (x. p. 60).

Arnouldia eeratodes, Gude (xir. p. 398). Very closely related to

Microcystina labilis, Gld., but smaller and more polished. It

seems to be a Microcystina. nanodes, Gude (xii. p. 399). The generic position of this and

the two species following is doubtful. I have seen none of

them. KalieUa symmetrica, Pilsbry (xv. p. 80). A synonym of K. pagodu-

loide.s, Gude, which was published three days earlier.

fraterna, Pilsbry (xv. p. 81).

Euconidus Reinhardti, Pilsbry (xv. p. 81). A KalieUa.

Puncium japonicum, Pilsbry (xv. p. 82).

Diplommatina uzenensis, Pilsbry (xvr. p. 88).

Eidota callizona, var. maritima, Gulick & Pilsbry (xvi. p. 88).

luhuana, var. idzwnonis, Pilsbry & Gulick (xvi. p. 89;.

, var. aomoriensis, Gulick & Pilsbry (xvi. p. 89).

Trislioplita Goodwini, var. hyotoensis, Pilsbry (xvi. p. 90). Eulota mercatoria, var. afrata, Pilsbry (xvi. p. 91). Clausilia comes^ Pilsbry (xvii. p. 673, pi. xxiv. figs. 1-3).

monelasmiis, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 674, pi. xxiv. figs. 4-6).

iotaptyx, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 674, pi. xxiv. figs, 7-9).

mikado, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 676, pi. xxiv. figs. 10-12).

brevior, var. Addisoni, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 677).

Tiondana, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 677, pi. xxiv. figs. 13-18).

subjaponica, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 678).

Nolani, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 679, pi. xxv. figs. 19-21).

tosayia, Pilsby (xvii. p. 680, pi. xxv. figs. 22-25, 41).

shikokuensis, Pilsbry (xvii. p. 681, pi. xxv. figs. 30-32).

Eulota (^gista) mimida, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 107). Trislioplita cretacea, var. bipartita, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 107). Eulota. (Plectotropis) elegctntissima, var. cara, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 107). Clausdia euholostoma , Pilsbry (xviii. p. 108).

japonica, var. interplicata, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 108).

perpallida, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 108).

harimensis, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 108).

Jiokhaidoensis, Pilsbry (xviii. p. 108). This seems to be a

subspecies of C. perpallida of Hondo Island.

iotaptyx, var. clava (xviii. p. 108).

Hiraseana, Pilsbry (xix. p. 115).

Trislioplita Smitliiana, Pilsbry (xix. p. 116).

Ganesella myompliala, var. omphalodes, Pilsbry (xix. p. 116).

8 Dr. H. A. Pilsbiy on

Ganesella Wiegmanniana, Pilsbry (xix, p. 116).

"ileUcina osumiensis, Pilsbry (xx. p. 127).

Beinii, var. uzenensis, Pilsbry (xx. p. 128).

Vertigo Birasei, Pilsbry (xx. p. 128).

Buliminus caUistoderma, var. ogasaivarce, Pilsbry (xx. p. 128).

eucharistus, Pilsbry (xx. p. 128).

lucJnianiis, Pilsbry (xx. p. 129).

Eidota {J^gista) Martensiana, Pilsbry (xx. p. 129).

{Plectotropis) inornata, Pilsbry (xx. p. 129).

Gastrodontella japonica, MoUendorff (xxi. p. 38).— A synonym of Kaliella midtivolvis, Pils.

Buliminus (Subzebrinus) nipponicus, MoUendorff (xx. p. 40). A synonym of B. Hirasei, Pils.

Clausilia {Stereoplicedusa) eurgstoma, subsp. bracJiyptycha, MoUen- dorff (xx. p. 41). This is C. japonica, var. surugce, Pils., which I subsequently (xvii. p. 677) thought to be C. oostoma, MlldfF.

{Megalopjlicedusa) Fultoni, subsp. clavula, MoUendorff (xx.

p. 41). =(7. subjaponica, Pilsbry*.

(Hemipluedusa) brevilmia, MoUendorff' (xx. p. 42). = C. mda-

cophora, Pilsbry.

( ) omiensis, MoUendorff (xx. p. 42). = C. milcado, Pils.

Diplommatina (Sinica) minutissima, MoUendorff (xx. p. 44). =D. pusilla, var. omiensis, Pilsbry.

Georissa japonica, MoUendorff (xx. p. 45). This seems to be G. japonica, Pilsbry.

Succinea ogasaivarce, Pilsbry (xxi. p. 195).

punctulispira, Pilsbry (xxi. p. 195).

Total, 129 new species and varieties, of which 22 are known to be absolute synonyms, while perhaps a half-dozen more are doubt- fully distinct.

Bibliography.

\_Note. For publications prior to 1900 see Gude's papers ii. and vii.]

I. " Additions to the Japanese Land-Snail Fauna," by H. A. Pilsbry.

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhUad. for 1899, pp. 625-530, pi. xxi.

(Issued February 12, 1900.) II. " Notes on a Collection of Helicoid Land-Shells from Japan and

the Loo Choo Islands, with Descriptions of Two new Species of

Helicidaj," by G. K. Gude. Proc. Malac. Soc. London, iv. pp. 8-23,

pi. ii. (Issued late in TNIarcli 1900. My copy was received in

Philadelphia, April 12.) III.— "Notices of some new Japanese Mollusks," by H. A. Pilsbry.

Nautilus, xiv. pp. 11, 12. (Issued May 1, 1900.) ]V. Ditto. Nautilus, xiv. pp. 32, 33. (Issued July 1, 1900.)

* The clausilium of C. suhjaponica is strongly curved distally and much thickened at the apex. In C. Fultoni, as in C. vasta, it is not much curved dist.'dly, and is not thickened at the apex. I therefore believe the species to belong to the section Stercophcedum, and not to Mec/alophcedusa.

Japanese Land-Snails. 9

V. "Diagnosen einiger neuer japanisclier Landschnecken," von Paul

Ehrmann. Zool. Auzeiger, xxiii. no. 619^ pp. 379-383. (Issued

July 9, 1900.) VI. " Notices of new Japanese Laud-Snails," by H. A. Pilsbry. Proc.

Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. for 1900, pp. 381-384. (Issued August 9,

1900.) VII. " Further Notes on Helicoid Land-Shells from Japan, the Loo

Choo and Bonin Islands, with Descriptions of Seven new Species,"

by G. K. Gude. Proc, Malac. Soc. London, iv. pp. 70-80, pi. viii.

(Issued August 1900.) VIII. " Ijandschnecken von den Inseln Tsushima und Iki, Westjapan,"

von Dr. 0. v. MoUendortF. Nachrbl. d. deutschen malak. Ges.

xxxii. nos. 7, 8, pp. 107-111. (Issued August 19U0.) IX. " Additions to the Japanese Land-Snail Fauna, II.," by Henry A.

Pilsbry. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. for 1900, pp. 443-448,

pi. xiv. (Issued August 29, 1900.) X. " On some Japanese Land-Snails," by H. A. Pilsbry. Nautilus,

xiv. pp. 59, 60. (Issued Sept. 1, 1900.) XI. " Moliusques de lArchipel de Bonin," par M. 0. F. Ancey.

Journal de Conchyliologie, xlviii. no. 3, pp. 423-428. XII. " Descriptions of new Species of Japanese Land-Shells," by G. K.

Gude. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vi. pp. 398-401. (Issued

Oct. 1, 1900.) XIII. " Blanfordia, A. Ad.," von Dr. O. v. MollendorfF. Nachrbl. der

deutschen malak. Ges. xxxii. pp. 153, 154. (October 1900.) xrv. " Descriptions of new Species of Japanese Land-Shells," by G. K.

Gude. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vi. pp. 453-456. (Issued

Nov. 1, ICOO.) XV. " New Species of Japanese Land-Mollusca," by H. A. Pilsbry.

Nautilus, xiv. pp. 79-82. (Issued Nov. 3, 1900.) XVI. " Descriptions of new Japanese Land-Snails," by H. A. Pilsbry

and Addison Gulick. Nautilus, xiv. pp. 88-91. (Issued Dec. 1,

1900.) XVII. " Additions to the Japanese Land-Snail Fauna, III.," by Henry

A. Pilsbry. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. for 1900, pp. 672-683,

pis. xxiv., XXV. (Pages 672-676 issued Dec. 29, 1900 ; pp. 677-

683 issued Jan. 28, 1901.) xvin. " Notices of some new Japanese Land-Snails," by H. A.

Pilsbry. Nautilus, xiv. pp. 107, 108. (Issued Jan. 1, 1901.) XIX. " Notices of some new Japanese Laud-Snails," by H. A. Pilsbry.

Nautilus, xiv. pp. 115-117. (Issued Feb. 1, 1901.) XX. " Notices of new Japanese Land-Snails," by H. A. Pilsbry. Nau- tilus, xiv. pp. 127-129. (Issued March 1, 1901.) XXI. " Neue und kritische Landschnecken von Japan und den

Liukiu-Inselu," von Dr. 0. von MollendorfF. Nachrbl. der

deutschen malak. Gesellschaft, nos, 3, 4, 1901 . (Issued in April

1901.) xxn. " iNew Mollusca from Japan, the Loo Choo Islands, Formosa,

and the Philippines," by Henry A. Pilsbry. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.

Philad. for 1901 ; terrestrial species on pp. 193-195. (Issued

May 2, 1901.)

10 Mr. G. A. Bouleiiger 07i

II. Descriptions of Three new Siluroid Fishes of the Genus Synodontis discovered by Mr. W. L. S. Loat in the White mie. By G. A. Boulengee, F.R.S.

Synodontis caudovittatus.

Depth of body 3 to 3^ times in total length, length of head 3f to 4. Snout rounded, smooth, as long as or slightly longer than postocular part of head ; interorbital region granular, its width 2 to 2^ in length of head ; eye supero- lateral, its diameter 4^ to 5 times in length of head ; max- illary barbel without fringe, I5 to 1| length of head ; man- dibular barbels with long slender branches, those of the inner with tubercular ramifications. Outer mandibular teeth shorter than the eye, 33 to 38. Occipito-nuchal shield obtusely tectiform, with pointed or truncated posterior processes. Humeral process not keeled, sharply pointed, extending as far as nuchal or not quite so far. Dorsal I 7 ; spine as long as or a little shorter than head, feebly serrated behind, with short or rather long filamentous prolongation. Adipose fin 3 to 4 times as long as deep, 3^ to 5 times as long as its distance from dorsal. Anal IV 8, rounded. Pectoral spine as long as or a little shorter than head, feebly but distinctly serrated on outer edge, very strongly on inner, reaching or nearly reaching ventral. Latter rounded, extending to or slightly beyond origin of anal. Skin smooth, not villose. Grey, tinged with olive on the head and back; caudal tin whitish, with a deep black band along each lobe ; barbels white.

Total length 240 raillim.

Several specimens from the mouth of Lake No.

Allied to S.frontosus, Vaill. Differs in the total absence of a fringe to the maxillary barbel, tlie larger eye, the rounded ventrals and anal, and the black bands on the caudal.

Sy nodon it's fila mentosus.

Depth of body equal to length of head, 4 times in total length. Snout obtusely conical, smooth, as long as post- ocular part of head ; interorbital region rugose, its width ^ length of head ; eye superior, its diameter 3|- times in length of liead ; maxillary barbel broadly fringed at the base, | length of head ; mandibular barbels with numerous long ramified branches. Outer mandibular teeth barely ^ length of eye, 20 in number. Occipito-nuchal shield obtusely tecti-

Three new Siluroid Fishes. 11

form, with obtuselj pointed posterior processes. Humeral process not keeled, rounded behind, extending as far as nuchal. Dorsal I 7 ; spine as long as head, feebly serrated behind, with a filamentous prolongation the length